Presentation on theme: "CHAPTER 9, SECTIONS 2 & 3 INDIAN POLITICAL AND ECONOMIC CHALLENGES."— Presentation transcript:
CHAPTER 9, SECTIONS 2 & 3 INDIAN POLITICAL AND ECONOMIC CHALLENGES
PREAMBLE TO THE INDIAN CONSTITUTION WE, THE PEOPLE OF INDIA, having solemnly resolved to constitute India into a SOVEREIGN SOCIALIST SECULAR DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC and to secure to all its citizens: JUSTICE, social, economic and political; LIBERTY of thought, expression, belief, faith and worship; EQUALITY of status and of opportunity; and to promote among them all FRATERNITY assuring the dignity of the individual and the unity and integrity of the Nation; IN OUR CONSTITUENT ASSEMBLY this twenty-sixth day of November, 1949, do HEREBY ADOPT, ENACT AND GIVE TO OURSELVES THIS CONSTITUTION.
INDIA’S GOVERNMENT India is a parliamentary democracy. This system is based on the British form of government. Under this system the president is head of the state but has little power. Real power lies in the hands of the political party that wins the most seats in parliament.
INDIA’S PARLIAMENT The Indian Parliament is divided into two houses: The upper house is called the Rajya Sabha, or Council of State. Members of this house are chosen by state legislators. The lower (and more powerful) house is called the Lok Sabha, or House of the People. Its members are chosen directly by the people.
POLITICAL PARTIES India has more than a dozen national political parties. Parties represent the interest of different caste, language, or religious groups. The Indian constitution guarantees the right to vote to every citizen 18 and older. Because many voters cannot read or write, parties use symbols on the ballots (a tree, ox, or cornstalk might stand for a particular party.) If no party wins a majority in elections, a coalition government is formed. In a coalition, several parties join to rule.
POLITICAL PARTIES For many years, the Congress party ( INC ) dominated the national government. Indians voted for it as the party that had led them to independence. In recent years, other political parties have grown stronger. In the early 1990s, the Bharata Janata Party ( BJP ) was gaining support. Its leaders stressed traditional Hindu values. Since the last three decades the two dominant national parties (INC and BJP) represent left of center and right of center beliefs.
DIVIDING FORCES India’s population has more than tripled since Independence. This massive population increase strongly correlates to rising poverty and illiteracy levels. The government formally outlawed the caste system but old cultural traditions remain strong, especially in rural areas. Culturally diverse groups in India have demanded a separate state for themselves. These separatists often resort to violence in order to demand their political and social unrest.
DIVIDING FORCES Sikh separatism is especially strong. Today, Sikhs make up about 2% of India’s population but feel that they do not receive a large enough share of the government’s resources. Muslim and Hindu violence continues to be a large problem. Despite many Muslims moving to Pakistan after the partition, more than 177 million still live in India. In 1990, violence over control of the holy site in the city of Ayodhya left hundreds dead.
UNIFYING FORCES Despite many threats to unity, India survived. Millions of Indians share a common faith, culture, and language. Increased communication and transportation methods have helped to unite the country. Faced with demands from groups that want to break away, the government has tried to negotiate compromises. Most Indians are committed to democratic traditions.
INDIA’S LEADERS Jawaharlal Nehru led India for 17 years after Independence. He wanted to make India a modern industrial nation. He had a vision of a casteless, secular India. Nehru died in 1964, and in 1966 his daughter, Indira Gandhi, became prime minister. Her policies aimed at continuing India’s path for modernization but economic problems and charges of corruption weakened her government. In 1984, she ordered government troops to storm the Golden Temple, which was being held by a militant group of armed Sikhs. Many Sikhs were killed in this attack. Later that year, two of Gandhi’s Sikh bodyguards shot and killed her. Anti-Sikh rioting shook the country after her death.
ECONOMIC GOALS In 1947, India’s economy was poor and undeveloped. Although India exported raw materials, it had to import machinery and other finished goods from industrial countries. India’s new leaders were determined to free their country from economic dependence. Jawaharlal Nehru instituted a series of reforms aimed at growing the Indian economy and limiting foreign investment. Industries were nationalized in order to have greater control over them.
INDUSTRIAL GROWTH To lessen the dependence on imports, India needed factories to produce basic materials. By using India’s iron, coal, and other mineral resources, steel factories and huge hydroelectric plants were built. Nehru referred to these plants as “ India’s new temples.”
INDUSTRIAL GROWTH During the early years of independence, industry made impressive gains: Iron ore output tripled Coal and steel production rose Energy output doubled New industries in engineering, chemicals, and textiles were created. By the 1960s, India ranked as the world’s seventh most industrialized nation.
ECONOMIC REFORMS India’s economy slowed in the 1970s due to a steep rise in world oil prices. In order to promote economic growth, India’s government sold off state-owned industries to private investors. To encourage private enterprise, the government set up joint projects with foreign companies.
ECONOMIC REFORMS These reforms got India’s economy moving again. During the 1990s, India had one of the world’s fastest growing economies. Foreign investment rose High-technology industries boomed and India built one of the world’s leading computer software industries. Despite this progress, poverty has remained widespread in India. Reducing poverty levels has proved difficult because India needs to create millions of new jobs every year just to keep pace with its rapid population growth.
PROGRESS IN AGRICULTURE Farming is still at the heart of India’s economy. About three quarters of all Indians live in rural areas Most are struggling subsistence farmers At independence, India could not feed its population. Poor soil and outdated farming methods kept farm output low. Droughts and flood led to famine
PROGRESS IN AGRICULTURE Investments were made to build new irrigation systems for farmers. Since the monsoon season could be unreliable, these irrigation systems helped to keep farmers productive in times of drought. Dams, canals, and wells help insure a year- round water supply.
GREEN REVOLUTION New technology improved India’s food output during the 1960s and 1970s. Scientists developed new types of wheat and rice seeds that produced much larger harvests. These “miracle crops” were part of the technological advance in agriculture known as the Green Revolution. The growing need to feed India’s increasing population means that the government must still invest heavily in boosting food output.