5 Agriculture subsistence farming – farm to live shifting farming – move to find better soilsedentary farming – permanent settlement
6 Agriculture Problems lack technology to increase food production lack money to improve farm machinery or buy fertilizer.
7 Forests and Seas Forest cover 25% of Africa teak, ebony, walnut, rosewoodLumber industry hurt by poor transportation and lack of capitalcoastal countries with rainforestsexport less than 10% of world’s supply
9 Forests and Seas Commercial fishing developed slowly – mainly SW tuna, sardines, anchovies, mackerel
10 Mining South Africa has most minerals Gold deposit 300 mi. long – Transvaal – 1/2 the worlds known gold reserveLeading producer of gem diamonds, platinum, chromium, vanadium, manganeseOne of richest nations in region – GDP $215 billion most goes to outside investors or owners.
12 Mining S. Africa continued Guinea – bauxite reserve Gap in household income between Blacks and Whites – B = $3,614 W = 21,707Guinea – bauxite reserveCongo – diamonds, and copperNigeria – huge oil, OPEC member
14 Manufacturing Small part of economy Many raw material but few processing centersLate 1990’s only 15% of regions GDP from manufacturing – varies depending on countryObstacles – lack of capital, political turmoil, lack of skilled workers or transportation.
15 Manufacturing Hydroelectricity remains untapped leads to povertyRegional trading association – Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS)
21 Improving transportation Wars and lack of funds have caused a decline in highways and railwaysregions size and unfavorable terrain made difficult to find new routesfew harbors and navigable riversgovernment owned airlines have international and domestic serviceIntl. airports – Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, Nairobi, Kenya, Johannesburg, South Africa, Dakar, Senegal
22 OILpipelines in Tanzania, Zambia, Sudan, South Africa, and Nigeria
26 Mass Communication lack of newsprint, low literacy rate telephone service is limitedChad 1-1,209, Kenya 1-111most effective is radio Chad 1-4, Kenya 1-11T.V. – rerun American shows, urban areas, educational tool.