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Types of Operating System

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1 Types of Operating System

2 Learning Objectives: By the end of this topic you should be able to:
Synoptic: describe the functions of an operating system identify the major characteristics of different types of operating systems

3 What is an Operating System?
"A program or suite of programs that controls the entire operation of the computer" - BCS definition the software responsible for allocating and managing system resources memory, processor time, disk space examples include: Windows (Microsoft), iOS (Apple) Android (Google) Linux (open source)

4 Why do we need an Operating System?
Computer system = Hardware + Software application programs (software) communicate with system hardware via the operating system so programmers can write software to run on an OS not every type of hardware different types of computer system will require different operating system features: networked & single user PC mobile ‘phone, tablet computer, games console, sat nav, TV, digital camera …….

5 Functions of an Operating System
controlling computer hardware, CPU, RAM, printers, disk drives, keyboard, mouse, touchscreen…. organising files on storage media, hard drive, CDROM, memory cards, memory sticks …. providing the user interface receiving commands from the system operator e.g. to copy or delete files security: detecting and preventing unauthorised use, managing hardware errors protecting data files and programs from corruption, reporting and logging hardware and software usage & errors

6 Types of Operating System
Single User Multi-user Multi-tasking Interactive Real Time Batch Processing Distributed Systems

7 Single User standard OS for a standalone computer systems
only one person can use the computer system at any one time can support multiple accounts but only one used at a time processing power of CPU dedicated to the user so multi-tasking can be performed i.e. running more than one program for that user at the same time

8 Multi User more than one user accessing the system at the same time
most commonly: network operating system server computer connected to a number of terminals client-server LAN, ATM, ticket booking O/S allocates a time slice to each user switches from user to user the larger the number of users the slower the system works can run several programs simultaneously

9 Multi-Tasking CPU carries out more than one task at the same time
several programs can be loaded and running at the same time e.g. using a word processor whilst browsing the Internet processor switches between tasks completes part of one task then switches to do part of another task this process happens very fast appears that tasks are running concurrently true multi-tasking requires more than one processor many currentCPUs have multiple processing cores

10 Interactive direct user interaction whilst a program is running
accepts and responds to input from user “question and answer” between user and computer computer gives the user an immediate response

11 Interactive Processing:
Examples: Booking concert tickets Ordering books online Handling bank accounts Booking a holiday: fill in a web form, submit it site informs you of the room you have booked.

12 Real Time must respond to events with no discernible delay
responds immediately to the data entered used where response time by the system is critical where delays in processing would prove unacceptable used for control systems traffic lights, air traffic control, aircraft navigation used for embedded systems systems within another application, e.g. cars and mobile phones

13 Real Time Examples: Traffic lights Heart rate monitoring
Aircraft control Computer games Controlling robots

14 Batch Processing: data can be collected over a period of time
when all data collected it is processed at the same time as a ‘batch’ data is processed at an off-peak period when there is less demand on the processor less disruption to the daily work schedule system & peripherals available when most needed does not need staff intervention suitable for situations where there is a lot of similar data to be processed & the processing can wait: cheque processing in a bank, gas bill printing, payroll processing not suitable where the data must be processed instantly data is not up to date until processing completed

15 Distributed Systems complex task split into a number of smaller, similar tasks a series of computers connected together via network computers can be in different physical locations each computer performs part of the processing results from individual machines are combined to achieve the overall task Examples: film animation & CGI via “render farms” modelling real world scenarios – scientific, environmental, financial ……. analysis of large datasets List:

16 Distributed Supercomputers

17 Dell Stampede Dell PowerEdge C8220 server cluster
96,000 processing cores, 205TB of RAM memory, 10 petaflops of peak performance Intel Core i5 processor = 100 gigaflops 1 petaflop = 1000 teraflops = 1 million gigaflops

18 PlayStation Supercomputer

19 PlayStation Supercomputer
1,760 PS3 gaming consoles among the 40 fastest computers in the world 205TB of RAM memory, 53 teraflops of peak performance core i5 processor = 100 gigaflops 1 teraflop = 1 million, million calculations per second (1012)

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