Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Unit IV: Political Organization of Space. Political Geography organization & distribution of political phenomena.

Similar presentations

Presentation on theme: "Unit IV: Political Organization of Space. Political Geography organization & distribution of political phenomena."— Presentation transcript:

1 Unit IV: Political Organization of Space

2 Political Geography organization & distribution of political phenomena

3 Territory effort to control land world divided by borders –countries (or “states”)


5 I. States 1. independent political unit 2. w/ defined territory 3. must be recognized by others

6 World States 192 recognized by UN

7 Issues defining states some territories not recognized: –Taiwan –Tibet –Western Sahara

8 II. Nations A cultural unit bound by sense of shared beliefs/customsA cultural unit bound by sense of shared beliefs/customs

9 “Stateless Nations” Nations without a country –Palestinians –Kurds –Basques

10 Multinational State The Former Yugoslavia A state with more than one nation.

11 The Nation-State a nation & a state (country w/ homogenous culture) about 20 countries Exs: Iceland, Portugal, Poland, Japan

12 d. stateless nation Types of Relationship s Between “states” & “nations” a. nation-state b. multi-national state (Cyprus) c. part-nation state (Arab)

13 Spatial Characteristics of States Smallest: City-states: Singapore, Monaco, San Marino Microstates: Andorra, The Vatican Largest: Russia

14 5 basic shapes: –Compact (Uruguay, Zimbabwe, Poland) –Prorupt (extension out; Thailand) –Elongated (Chile) –Fragmented (difficult to defend; Philippines, Indonesia) –Perforated (country that surrounds another; South Africa

15 A C B E D

16 Relative Location size and shape matter! absolute & relative location matter! Ex: Singapore, Switzerland Landlocked countries usually at disadvantage –Bolivia


18 Boundary Types 1. Physical: m ountains, rivers, lakes 2. Geometric: lines of latitude/longitude

19 3. Cultural: separated by language/religion –India & Pakistan

20 Boundary Origins 1. Antecedent: border before populated Ex: U.S. 2. Subsequent: border drawn after 2 types: Consequent (Ireland & N. Ireland) Superimposed (British India)

21 –Ireland & N. Ireland Consequent

22 3. Relict/relic Boundary: historical boundary


24 U.N. Convention of the Law of the Sea Territorial waters: 12 NM out Exclusive Economic ZoneExclusive Economic Zone: 200 NM (fish, mineral resources)

25 Types of Boundary Disputes 1. Positional: over border 2. Functional: over policies (immigration) 3.Resource (oil) 4.Territorial - irredentism


27 Capital Cities: usually centralized (“core” area) Primate City: dominates economic activity some capitals relocated: –Forward Thrust Capital (Abuja, Brazilia, Canberra, Islamabad)

28 Nigeria - Abuja

29 Geopolitics Ratzel’s Organic Theory: countries are living organisms Mackinder Heartland Theory: land-based power (pivot area Europe) Spykman Rimland Theory: naval power


31 Forms of Government Unitary: centralized gov’t (strong capital) Federal: gov’t organized by territories

32 Centripetal Forces promote cohesion nationalism unify better transportation/communication

33 Centrifugal Forces challenges to the state ethno-nationalism devolution (autonomous regional gov’t); regionalism inequality

34 Ethnocultural Devolutionary Movements Eastern Europe devolutionary forces since the fall of communism


36 Economic Devolutionary Movements Catalonia, Spain Barcelona is the center of banking and commerce in Spain and the region is much wealthier than the rest of Spain.

37 Electoral Geography Gerrymandering: redrawing of voting districts to benefit 1 political party protects minority districts


39 Supranational Organizations: 3 or more states form an alliance - military (NATO) - economic (EU, NAFTA) -political (UN)

40 Global Scale – The United Nations

41 Regional Scale – The European Union

Download ppt "Unit IV: Political Organization of Space. Political Geography organization & distribution of political phenomena."

Similar presentations

Ads by Google