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Unit IV: Political Organization of Space
Political Geography organization & distribution of political phenomena
Territory effort to control land world divided by borders –countries (or “states”)
I. States 1. independent political unit 2. w/ defined territory 3. must be recognized by others
World States 192 recognized by UN
Issues defining states some territories not recognized: –Taiwan –Tibet –Western Sahara
II. Nations A cultural unit bound by sense of shared beliefs/customsA cultural unit bound by sense of shared beliefs/customs
“Stateless Nations” Nations without a country –Palestinians –Kurds –Basques
Multinational State The Former Yugoslavia A state with more than one nation.
The Nation-State a nation & a state (country w/ homogenous culture) about 20 countries Exs: Iceland, Portugal, Poland, Japan
d. stateless nation Types of Relationship s Between “states” & “nations” a. nation-state b. multi-national state (Cyprus) c. part-nation state (Arab)
Spatial Characteristics of States Smallest: City-states: Singapore, Monaco, San Marino Microstates: Andorra, The Vatican Largest: Russia
5 basic shapes: –Compact (Uruguay, Zimbabwe, Poland) –Prorupt (extension out; Thailand) –Elongated (Chile) –Fragmented (difficult to defend; Philippines, Indonesia) –Perforated (country that surrounds another; South Africa
A C B E D
Relative Location size and shape matter! absolute & relative location matter! Ex: Singapore, Switzerland Landlocked countries usually at disadvantage –Bolivia
Boundary Types 1. Physical: m ountains, rivers, lakes 2. Geometric: lines of latitude/longitude
3. Cultural: separated by language/religion –India & Pakistan
Boundary Origins 1. Antecedent: border before populated Ex: U.S. 2. Subsequent: border drawn after 2 types: Consequent (Ireland & N. Ireland) Superimposed (British India)
–Ireland & N. Ireland Consequent
3. Relict/relic Boundary: historical boundary
U.N. Convention of the Law of the Sea Territorial waters: 12 NM out Exclusive Economic ZoneExclusive Economic Zone: 200 NM (fish, mineral resources)
Types of Boundary Disputes 1. Positional: over border 2. Functional: over policies (immigration) 3.Resource (oil) 4.Territorial - irredentism
Capital Cities: usually centralized (“core” area) Primate City: dominates economic activity some capitals relocated: –Forward Thrust Capital (Abuja, Brazilia, Canberra, Islamabad)
Nigeria - Abuja
Geopolitics Ratzel’s Organic Theory: countries are living organisms Mackinder Heartland Theory: land-based power (pivot area Europe) Spykman Rimland Theory: naval power
Forms of Government Unitary: centralized gov’t (strong capital) Federal: gov’t organized by territories
Centripetal Forces promote cohesion nationalism unify better transportation/communication
Centrifugal Forces challenges to the state ethno-nationalism devolution (autonomous regional gov’t); regionalism inequality
Ethnocultural Devolutionary Movements Eastern Europe devolutionary forces since the fall of communism
Economic Devolutionary Movements Catalonia, Spain Barcelona is the center of banking and commerce in Spain and the region is much wealthier than the rest of Spain.
Electoral Geography Gerrymandering: redrawing of voting districts to benefit 1 political party protects minority districts
Supranational Organizations: 3 or more states form an alliance - military (NATO) - economic (EU, NAFTA) -political (UN)
Global Scale – The United Nations
Regional Scale – The European Union
How people divide the world into THEIR territories…
This term applies to any force that divides people within a state. Questions: What centrifugal forces are at play in Eastside?
Boundaries and border disputes Domestic political geography Electoral geography: voting patterns Class 8b: Political geography II.
Political Geography: State Shapes and Borders
Key Issue 2 Why Do Boundaries Cause Problems?
Jeopardy States & Nations Boundaries Supranationalism & Devolution Location, Location Location Odds and Ends Q $100 Q $200 Q $300 Q $400 Q $500 Q $100.
Political Geography Notes
State Morphology Comprehension Check
Political Geography Josh E. Breyanna C. Sapria G. Floyd J.
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Sabiha Zaman. It concerns: o why political spaces emerge in the places that they do o how the characteristics of those spaces affect social, political,
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Ethnonationalism Def: Strong feeling of belonging to a nation that is a minority within a state, has its own distinctive homeland within the state’s territory,
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A) Mesopotamia. B) Northern India. C) Greece. D) Roman Empire. E) Mayan.
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