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Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs)

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Presentation on theme: "Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs)"— Presentation transcript:

1 Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs)
Learning Target: Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs)

2 Genetic Engineering I Can… Describe, in general terms, how the genetic information of an organism can be altered to give the organism new genetically based traits. I Will… List examples of cloning of organisms occurring in nature. Briefly describe the steps of Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer (SCNT) in cloning mammals Connect the structure of DNA and process of protein synthesis with reasons why genetic engineering is possible. List the steps necessary to produce a transgenic organism

3 KEY CONCEPT: Genetic Engineering
DNA sequences of organisms can be changed. Entire organisms can be cloned New genes can be added to an organism’s DNA Genetic engineering produces organisms with new traits Principles of genetics and cellular chemistry can be used to produce new foods and medicines in biotechnological processes.

4 Clone: genetically identical copy of a gene or an organism Cloning occurs in nature: Plants Clone themselves from roots, stems and leaves Plant tissue contains many stem cells that can develop into many types of cells

5 Cloning occurs in nature:
Bacteria: Clone themselves during asexual reproduction through binary fission

6 Cloning occurs in nature:
Simple Animals: Clone themselves during asexual reproduction through budding e.g. Hydra Clone themselves during regeneration e.g. sea star

7 Cloning mammals – more difficult
Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer (SCNT) Haploid nucleus removed from unfertilized egg gamete cell Diploid nucleus from somatic cell inserted into the egg cell Stimulated (chemicals and electricity) to go through mitosis and start dividing Embryonic bastocyst (mass of cells) implanted in uterus Develops into cloned offspring 23 46

8 First clone of an adult mammal:
Dolly the sheep (1977) Many other mammals cloned since Biotechnology companies clone beloved pets

9 Rainbow – Somatic cell DNA CC – Cloned/Carbon Cat Egg donor– Anonymous Allie – Surrogate mom Many Factors affect gene expression – Epistasis, Inactivation, Methylation, … Epigenetics

10 Cloning: Controversial
Pros Creation of personal stem cells Organ transplant Treat diseases Spinal cord injuries Save endangered species Cons Low success rate Expensive Health issues in clone Reduces biodiversity Ethic of “creating” life When does life begin?

11 How and why can we do this?
Genetic Engineering: Changing and adding genes to an organism’s DNA to give it new traits Clones genes not whole organisms How and why can we do this? DNA is UNIVERSAL! DNA – 4 common nucleotides (A,T,G,& C) DNA – Common double helix structure RNA – Common 4 nucleotides (A, U, G, & C) Codons – code for 20 common amino acids the make proteins

12 Genetic engineering is based on:
Recombinant DNA DNA that contains genes from more than one organism Engineer crops to be resistant to cold or insects Engineer crops to produce vitamins or medicines Engineer bacteria to produce medicines or enzymes

13 Bacterial plasmids are often used to make recombinant DNA
Plasmid - closed loop of DNA in bacteria separate from the bacterial chromosome Will replicate on its own within the cell

14 Transgenic organism - has one or more genes from another organism inserted into its genome
Transgenic bacteria used to make human insulin: Gene inserted into plasmid Plasmid inserted into bacteria Bacteria expresses gene

15 Transgenic plants are common in agriculture:
Transgenic bacteria infect a plant Plant expresses foreign gene Many crops are now genetically modified (GM / GMO -organism)

16 Scientists have concerns about some uses of genetic engineering:
Possible long-term health effects of eating GM foods Allergies Diseases Possible effects of GM plants on ecosystem and biodiversity Keystone species cascade effect New vulnerabilities of engineered organism

17 Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs)
Learning Check : List 4 reasons why genetic engineering is possible Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs)

18 Learning Check : Name: ___________________ Learning Check : Name: ___________________ List 4 reasons why genetic engineering is possible List 4 reasons why genetic engineering is possible Learning Check : Name: ___________________ Learning Check : Name: ___________________ List 4 reasons why genetic engineering is possible List 4 reasons why genetic engineering is possible

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