Any process that uses our understanding of living things to create a product
Genetic Engineering The process of making changes in the DNA code of living organisms
Genetic engineering can be accomplished through transformation. Transformation is when a cell takes in DNA from outside the cell. This DNA becomes part of the cell’s DNA. This can be accomplished with the help of bacteria.
Bacterial Transformation The changing of one strain of bacteria into another strain
Plasmid : a circular piece of DNA found in bacteria F+ bacterium contains a plasmid F- bacterium does not contain a plasmid
Steps of Bacterial Transformation 1-Remove the plasmid from the bacterium.
Steps of Bacterial Transformation 2-Isolate the gene of interest. A gene of interest is a piece of DNA that codes for a protein we want more of
Steps of Bacterial Transformation 3-Open the plasmid by cutting it with a restriction enzyme This leaves “sticky ends” Which need to be the complement of the sticky ends left on the DNA fragment you want to insert.
Production of Human Insulin Insulin regulates the blood sugar level. The gene for human insulin is inserted into yeast or bacteria, from which large quantities of the human insulin are manufactured http://publications.nigms.nih.gov/genetics/images/ch1_diagram.gif http://www.ingenious.org.uk/media/4.0_SAC/webimages/1032/1/10321271_3.jpg
Golden Rice Undernourished people in poorer countries may have blindness caused by a lack of vitamin A Contains beta-carotene, which forms Vitamin A
http://www.jewishworldreview.com/toons/varvel/biotech.protest.gif http://www.bairesbiotec.org.ar/images/speake1.jpg Golden Rice Genes for making beta-carotene are taken from daffodils and inserted into the genome of rice
http://www.healingdaily.com/detoxification-diet/rBGH.jpg Recombinant Bovine Growth Hormone rBGH is a genetically engineered version of a hormone, which is found in the pituitary gland of cows and controls milk production rBGH can increase cows’ milk production by as much as 20-30% http://simple.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Milk_glass.jpg
Spider Silk Elastic, light weight fiber 5 times stronger than steel One method involves inserting the gene from a weaving spider into a fertilized goat egg. The resultant “spider-goat” produces milk that can be manufactured into strong fibers. http://www.chm.bris.ac.uk/motm/spider/goat.jpg
Spider Silk To make flak jackets, rope, textiles, sutures, artificial tendons, and bandages for burn victims
Glowing Organisms Genes that make jellyfish glow are inserted into other organisms The organism glows under UV light http://www.fluorescentpets.com/prod31.jpg
Glowing organisms Extra credit if you research the importance of this type of organism.
Bt is a bacterium that is toxic to some insects. In the lab, the gene that produces the toxic effect is inserted into the DNA of plants Bt crops produce an insecticide protein thousands of times more powerful than the chemical spray insecticides Bt Crops
Transgenic Organisms : Any organism whose genome incorporates and expresses genes from the same or a different species Genetically modified products: Altering the DNA of an organism to get it to express different traits.