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Producing Enough Food for the World

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1 Producing Enough Food for the World
Chapter 11 Producing Enough Food for the World




5 Crops Rangeland: Pasture:
Provides food for grazing and browsing animals without plowing and planting Pasture: Plowed, planted and harvested to provide forage for animals



8 Aquaculture Aquaculture Mariculture
The farming of food in aquatic habitats Mariculture The farming of ocean fish

9 Six Ways Agroecosystems Differ from Natural Ecosystems
Try to stop ecological succession and keep the agroecosystem in an early successional state Monoculture: Large areas planted with a single species Crops are planted in neat rows Farming greatly simplifies biological diversity Plowing is unlike any natural soil disturbance Genetic modification of crops.


11 Limiting Factors Limiting Factor: The single requirement for growth available in the least supply in comparison to the need of an organism 2 Types of Life-Important Chemicals 1. Macronutirents 2. Micronutirents Synergistic Effects: a change in availability of one resource affects the response of an organism to some other resource




15 Permaculture Permaculture is a branch of ecological design, ecological engineering, environmental design, construction and integrated water resources management that develops sustainable architecture, regenerative and self-maintained habitat and agricultural systems modeled from natural ecosystems

16 Increasing the Yield per Acre
1. The Green Revolution Programs that have led to the development of new strains of crops with higher yields, better resistance to disease or better ability to grow under poor conditions 2. Improved Irrigation

17 Organic Farming 3 Qualities
It is more like natural ecosystems than monocultures It minimizes negative environmental impacts The food that results from it does not contain artificial compounds




21 Genetically Modified Food
Genetically Modified Crops are modified by genetic engineers to produce higher crop yields and increase resistance to drought, cold, heat, toxins, plant pests and disease.

22 Effects of Agriculture on the Environment
Chapter 12 Effects of Agriculture on the Environment

23 Many environmental problems result from agriculture:
Soil erosion Sediment transport and deposition downstream On-site pollution from fertilizers and pesticides Deforestation Desertification Degradation of water aquifers Salinization Accumulation of toxic metals and organic compounds Loss of biodiversity


25 Where Eroded Soil Goes: Sediments Also Cause Environmental Problems
Ways to slow erosion: Making Soil Sustainable Contour Plowing No-Till Agriculture Combination of farming practices that include not plowing the land and using herbicides to keep down weeds.



28 Integrated Pest Management
Control of agricultural pests using several methods together, including biological and chemical agents Goals: To minimize the use of artificial chemicals To prevent or slow the buildup of resistance by pests to chemical pesticides



31 The Terminator Gene A genetically modified crop which has a gene to cause the plant to become sterile after the first year Is it really available? It is debateable. Monsanto denies Farmers suspect

32 Farming Crisis in India/ Vandana Shiva

33 Grazing on Rangelands Overgrazing occurs when the carrying capacity is exceeded. It can cause severe damage to lands It is important to properly manage livestock, including using appropriate lands for gazing and keeping livestock at a sustainable density

34 Desertification Desertification is the deterioration of land in arid, semi- arid and dry sub humid areas due to changes in climate and human activities Can be caused by Poor farming practices Conversion of marginal grazing lands to croplands

35 Carrying capacity of pasture and rangeland in the United States
Average # of cows per square kilometer

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