8 Aquaculture Aquaculture Mariculture The farming of food in aquatic habitatsMaricultureThe farming of ocean fish
9 Six Ways Agroecosystems Differ from Natural Ecosystems Try to stop ecological succession and keep the agroecosystem in an early successional stateMonoculture: Large areas planted with a single speciesCrops are planted in neat rowsFarming greatly simplifies biological diversityPlowing is unlike any natural soil disturbanceGenetic modification of crops.
11 Limiting FactorsLimiting Factor: The single requirement for growth available in the least supply in comparison to the need of an organism2 Types of Life-Important Chemicals1. Macronutirents2. MicronutirentsSynergistic Effects: a change in availability of one resource affects the response of an organism to some other resource
15 PermaculturePermaculture is a branch of ecological design, ecological engineering, environmental design, construction and integrated water resources management that develops sustainable architecture, regenerative and self-maintained habitat and agricultural systems modeled from natural ecosystems
16 Increasing the Yield per Acre 1. The Green RevolutionPrograms that have led to the development of new strains of crops with higher yields, better resistance to disease or better ability to grow under poor conditions2. Improved Irrigation
17 Organic Farming 3 Qualities It is more like natural ecosystems than monoculturesIt minimizes negative environmental impactsThe food that results from it does not contain artificial compounds
21 Genetically Modified Food Genetically Modified Crops are modified by genetic engineers to produce higher crop yields and increase resistance to drought, cold, heat, toxins, plant pests and disease.
22 Effects of Agriculture on the Environment Chapter 12Effects of Agriculture on the Environment
23 Many environmental problems result from agriculture: Soil erosionSediment transport and deposition downstreamOn-site pollution from fertilizers and pesticidesDeforestationDesertificationDegradation of water aquifersSalinizationAccumulation of toxic metals and organic compoundsLoss of biodiversity
25 Where Eroded Soil Goes: Sediments Also Cause Environmental Problems Ways to slow erosion:Making Soil SustainableContour PlowingNo-Till AgricultureCombination of farming practices that include not plowing the land and using herbicides to keep down weeds.
28 Integrated Pest Management Control of agricultural pests using several methods together, including biological and chemical agentsGoals:To minimize the use of artificial chemicalsTo prevent or slow the buildup of resistance by pests to chemical pesticides
33 Grazing on RangelandsOvergrazing occurs when the carrying capacity is exceeded. It can cause severe damage to landsIt is important to properly manage livestock, including using appropriate lands for gazing and keeping livestock at a sustainable density
34 DesertificationDesertification is the deterioration of land in arid, semi- arid and dry sub humid areas due to changes in climate and human activitiesCan be caused byPoor farming practicesConversion of marginal grazing lands to croplands
35 Carrying capacity of pasture and rangeland in the United States Average # of cows per square kilometer