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Laura L. Cone Kaplan University HW220 April 24, 2012.

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1 Laura L. Cone Kaplan University HW220 April 24, 2012

2 “Range of tools, including traditional breeding techniques, that alter living organisms, or parts of organisms, to make or modify products; improve plants or animals; or develop microorganisms for specific agricultural uses,” (USDA, n.d.). Agricultural biotechnology includes genetic engineering.

3 Genetic Engineering – “Manipulation of an organism’s genes by introducing, eliminating, or rearranging specific genes using the methods of modern molecular biology…” (USDA, n.d.). Genetic Modification - “The production of heritable improvements in plants or animals for specific uses, via either genetic engineering or other more traditional methods,” such as cross-breeding (USDA, n.d.).

4 Plants have been modified so they will be less likely to succumb to disease. Plants are able to deter pests due to a protein that acts as an insecticide enabling farmers to use less pesticides (Schlenker, 2011). Genetically modified plants are often made to withstand extreme weather conditions or variances. Some plants have been genetically modified to increase nutrients that have been shown beneficial to or lacking in a population’s diet.

5 Milk produced by cows who have been injected with the bovine growth hormone (rBST), which is naturally occuring in the cow. However, by injecting the cow with it as well, the cow can produce up to 10% more milk (Mather, 2012). Other plant foods that are possibly genetically engineered include sweet corn, peppers, squash, zucchini, rice, sugar cane, rapeseed (for canola oil), flax, chicory, peas, and papaya (Mather, 2012). About 60% of processed foods include ingredients that have been genetically modified (Mather, 2012).

6 Introduction of proteins that may be harmful to humans (Agricultural Biotechnology Risk Analysis Research Task Group (ABRART, 2007) The transfer of genetic material to non-intended hosts. Plants may become invasive. Bacterial resistance to antibiotics

7 Could create more nutritious foods, by causing the organism to contain more of the healthful nutrient, or less of unhealthful factor. Could possibly enhance the tastes of certain foods Create medicinal foods to be used as vaccines or medications (MedlinePlus, 2010). Increase the supply of food with a longer shelf life while reducing the cost and Create faster growing plants (MedlinePlus, 2010) “Produce foods with desirable traits, i.e. potatoes that absorb less fat when fried,” (MedlinePlus, 2010) May be useful for areas that are susceptible to environmental extremes and have a lack of access to food

8 Agricultural biotechnology has evolved greatly over the last two decades. It affects you, as a consumer, every day. Each time you go to the grocery store to purchase food, you may or may not be buying genetically engineered or modified food.

9 Agricultural practices have deviated a great deal from decades ago. The heirloom vegetables and Daisy the cow are no longer the norm. Unfortunately, foods that have been genetically modified or engineered are not labeled. Unless you purchase organic, or pressure the government to label such products, you may well be buying genetically modified foods.

10 Agricultural Biotechnology Risk Analysis Research Task Group (ABRART). (2007). Agricultural biotechnology risk analysis research in the federal government. Retrieved April 24, 2012 from arch1.y=4&Current_status=Current&timeframe=Restrict+timeframe+to%3A&docType=0 &docSubtype=0 Food and Drug Administration. (2012). Plant biotechnology for food and feed. Retrieved April 24, 2012 from

11 Mather, R. (2012, April/May). The threats from genetically modified foods. Mother Earth News, 251, 42-51. MedlinePlus. (2010). Genetically engineered foods. Retrieved April 24, 2012 from Schlenker, E. D. & Roth, S. L. (2011). Williams’ Essential of Nutrition and Diet Therapy (10 th ed.). St. Louis, MO: Elsevier.

12 Union of Concerned Scientists. (2002). Risks of genetic engineering. Retrieved April 24, 2012 from ring/risks-of-genetic-engineering.html#Production_of_New_Toxins. USDA. (2001.). Glossary of biotechnology terms. Retrieved April 24, 2012 from d=AGRICULTURE USDA. (2006). The first decade of genetically engineered crops in the United States. Retrieved April 20, 2012 from

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