Presentation on theme: "OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH IN GHANA Ghana has a mixed economy dominated by agriculture, commerce, service and industry."— Presentation transcript:
OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH IN GHANA Ghana has a mixed economy dominated by agriculture, commerce, service and industry.
The emerging oil sector will provide significant impetus to the economy in the foreseeable future
Nearly 80 percent of the workforce is in the informal sector. This sector is associated with high safety and health risk but falls outside current national OSH regulatory framework.
Ghana’s OSH policy and law must thus be designed to address extreme situations, the needs of the informal sector, the growing industrial and emerging gas and oil sectors.
Knowing the Ghanaian’s poor attitude towards compliance with national laws and the weak law enforcement in general, regulating the OSH in the informal sector is a major challenge.
Thus we must explore ways of designing efficient and effective OSH law coupled with innovative and facilitatory compliance mechanisms rather than relying on traditional, inspection, punitive and reactive approaches in law enforcement
GHANA’S PRESENT REGULATORY FRAMEWORK The current OSH laws are outmoded in formulation (prescriptive in orientation), limited in scope and coverage, has not kept pace with international development, has areas of inconsistency, its definitions do not address occupational diseases and it has complex legal procedures which delays judgement.
The implementing bodies have limited capacity to develop and implement national safety and health policy, no single institution has full capacity to assume oversight responsibility over OSH.
In addition there is fragmentation in enforcement effort, overlapping areas of responsibility, absence of coordination and differences in approach
THE RESPONSIBILITIES OF MINISTRIES The regulation and promotion of occupational health and safety is the responsibility of three Ministries mainly, the Ministry of Employment and Labour Relations, the Ministry of Land and Natural Resources, Ministry of Energy.
The Environmental Protection Agency, Ministry of the Environment, Science and Technology and the Ministry of Roads and Transport, also have responsibilities for aspects of OSH or matters that impact on OSH.
DEFICIENCY IN EXISTING ARRANGEMENTS The statutes, for which each Ministry is responsible, have evolved independently. This has resulted in the fragmentation of enforcement efforts, overlapping areas of responsibility
differences in approach, inconsistencies between the laws, and an absence of overall strategy and co- ordination
Currently, no Ministry or institution has either the responsibility or capacity to develop and implement national health and safety policy. Similarly, no Ministry has oversight of all sectors of the economy.
Many of the inefficiencies associated with current arrangement are related to fragmentation and overlapping responsibilities, and low levels of staffing exacerbate these
legislative provisions have generally not kept pace with developments in industry and the informal sector, and have also lagged behind legislative developments elsewhere
Shortcoming cont. current legislation include outmoded formulations, limited scope and coverage, definitions that are too narrow or specific, inattention to occupational diseases, unspecified standards and complex legal procedures
Basis of National Policy the elimination or minimisation of hazards and reduction of risk factors effective information systems systems for consultation through the tri- and bi- social dialogue at the state and enterprise levels respectively training of workers
Basis Contd. the functions and responsibilities of agencies responsible for workplace inspection occupational health services
SCOPE OF NATIONAL POLICY All Employers All Employers All Employees All Employees All Economic Activities All Economic Activities Designers, manufacturers, importers and suppliers of industrial machinery, equipment and substances
ROLES AND RESPONSIBILITIES Government’s Role Law, policy Establishment of Authority Development & review of implementation program
Employers’ Responsibilities Creates the workplace Ensure design, operation & decommissioning in manner protective of health of workers & visitors & general public Bear cost of workplace accidents, injuries and disease System of risk assessment
System of health surveillance Promote employee wellbeing Emergency response plan Reporting of OSH incidents surveys Maintenance of data– incidents, injuries, illness,
INSTITUTIONAL ARRANGEMENT National OSH Authority – implementation of integrated S & H policy Make human resources available across all sectors Leadership – National Tripartite Advisory Board Overall Responsibility - Minister CEO -Responsible for OSH Mgt.--- Specific Functions- Inspectorate, Research, Standards, Compensation etc
Review of policy This policy will be reviewed and revised. This should take place once in five years. It may occur earlier if circumstances warrant an earlier revision.