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Psikologi Anak Pertemuan 7 The self, identity, and gender development

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Presentation on theme: "Psikologi Anak Pertemuan 7 The self, identity, and gender development"— Presentation transcript:

1 Psikologi Anak Pertemuan 7 The self, identity, and gender development

2 SELF All the Characteristics of the Person
Self-concept: everything the person believes to be true about him/herself Includes traits, preferences, social roles, values, beliefs, interests, self-categorization Self-understanding develops throughout the lifespan

3 Infancy Dot-of-rouge experiment Recognize selves in mirror at months months Personal pronoun use Picture recognition Self-referencing, ownership, self-monitoring Early childhood Confusion of self, mind, and body Concrete descriptions Physical descriptions Activities – what they do Overestimation of abilities Middle and late childhood Shift to internal traits and abilities Social role descriptions Real and ideal selves More realistic about abilities Adolescence Abstract-idealistic Self-conscious/ preoccupied Contradictions within self Fluctuating picture across time/situations Possible selves Self-integrations as they get older

4 Perspective Taking Opposite of egocentrism – the ability to assume another’s perspective Children who are good at this are popular Development progresses through stages (Selman)

5 What Are Self-Esteem and Self-Concept?
A person’s global evaluation of the self; also called self-worth or self-image. Self-concept Domain-specific evaluations of the self. Self-esteem reflects perceptions that do not always match reality.

6 Self-Esteem Evaluative part of the self-concept
emotional Difference between the real and ideal self Have you realized your potential? Do you value the trait, but have little potential? Ideal self includes the “ought” and the “wish” selves Measure of our sense of meaning in life This includes purpose Self-respect (Have you lived up to who you are?) Influenced by the reactions of others Generalized other, great ubiquitous “they” It is tougher to accept criticism Basis for conformity

7 Components of Identity
Career Political views Religious beliefs Relationships Ethnic identity Personality Body image

8 Erikson Identity vs. Identity Confusion
Identity crisis - exploration Identity commitment Problems: Weak sense of trust Little autonomy or initiative Lack of industry

9 Paths to Identity Identity diffusion Identity foreclosure
No crisis/ commitment Identity foreclosure Commitment/ no crisis Identity moratorium Crisis/ no commitment Identity achievement (goal) Commitment following crisis

10 Gender Development Gender — social dimension of being female or male
Gender role: set of expectations prescribing how females and males should act, feel, and think Gender typing: process by which children acquire thoughts, behaviors, and feelings culturally appropriate for their gender Sex — designates the biological aspects of being female or male

11 Biological Influences
Chromosomes — 23rd pair with X and Y Hormones Estrogens Estradiol influences development of female physical sex characteristics and helps regulate menstrual cycle Androgens Testosterone promotes development of male genitals and secondary sex characteristics

12 Evolutionary Psychology View of Gender
Differing roles in reproduction placed different pressures on males and females Key gender differences in sexual attitudes and sexual behaviors Males — competition, violence, risk-taking Females — parenting effort, selection of successful mate

13 Social Influences Differences due to social experiences
Social role theory: gender differences result from contrasting roles of men and women Psychoanalytic theory of gender: claims child identifies with same-sex parent by age 5 or 6 Many disagree, claiming gender learned much earlier (even in absence of same-sex parent) Social cognitive theory of gender — gender development results from observation and imitation, use of rewards and punishments for gender-appropriate behaviors

14 Cognitive Influences Cognitive development theory of gender
Children’s gender typing occurs after they think of themselves as boys and girls; gender constancy must be achieved first Once consistently conceived as male or female, children prefer activities, objects, and attitudes consistent with this label Gender schema theory Gender typing emerges gradually in gender schemas of what is culturally gender-appropriate and inappropriate Gender-typed behavior can occur before children develop gender constancy Gender schemas fuel gender typing

15 Masculinity, Femininity, and Androgyny
Androgyny — presence of masculine and feminine characteristics in same individual Bem Sex-Role Inventory: Instrumental, expressive traits Context influencing gender role is adaptive Gender-role transcendence — people should be evaluated as persons, not in terms of femininity, masculinity, or androgyny Bem’s Gender-Role Classification

16 Gender Development in Childhood
Children form many ideas about what the sexes are like from about 1½ to 3 years of age Boys receive earlier and more intense gender socialization Children show clear preference for same-sex peers Gender roles becoming more flexible

17 Gender Development in Adolescence
Transition point; changes in puberty Gender-intensification hypothesis Psychological and behavioral differences between boys and girls become greater during early adolescence Increased socialization pressures to conform to traditional gender roles Mixed messages and special problems

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