2 Goals of Psychological Research Description of social behaviorEstablish a relationship between cause & effectDevelop theories about why people behave the way that they doApplication
3 Empirical Research We can never prove!! Empirical Theory Knowledge based on direct observationTheorySet of ideas which try to explain what we observeGoal is to find support OR disproveWe can never prove!!
4 The Process of Doing Research First, select a topicGood theory:Has predictive powerIs simple & straightforwardThen, search the literatureHave others tried thisHow can your experiment be different
5 The Process of Doing Research Next, formulate hypothesesHypothesis: specific statement of expectation derived from theoryVariable: can be any event, characteristic, condition, or behavior
6 The Process of Doing Research Then pick your research methodExperiment (Design it)Field vs. laboratory (Setting)Finally, collect & analyze yourdata
7 Let’s take a closer look . . .at variables Dependent variable (outcome variable)Dependent on the influence of other factor(s)Independent variable (predictor variable)Factor(s) that change the outcome variableControl group
8 Research methods Types include 1) Naturalistic observation 2) Case studies- interviews, questionnaires, and psychological tests.3) Surveys
12 Lab: The Hypothetical Snack Bar 1) Ask Question2) Do background Research3) Construct Hypothesis: Tell which soda will rate the best. Score on a scale of #1-64) Test Experiment:Desk Side: Diet SodaDoor Side: Regular SodaStop and wait when finished and wait for instructions to switch
13 Lab: The Hypothetical Snack Bar 5) Analyze Results and Draw ConclusionsGraph Class Results6) Hypothesis true or false….why?7) Report Results
14 Analysis Questions Was the hypothesis proved or disproved? What variables could of lead to inaccuracies with our results?Did you see any differences between the control group and the experiment group? What are the differences and what lead to these differences?Do you think our results reflect consumer sales for these products? What are other factors that lead differences in sales?What did you learn from this experiment?