Presentation on theme: "3/19/15 Do Now: -How have you depended on or used plants today?"— Presentation transcript:
1 3/19/15 Do Now: -How have you depended on or used plants today? HOMEWORK:-VOCAB Ch.9 sections 1-3- Read Page 244 Visualizing plant classification and make a chart or flow diagram- p.245 #6 (if you did not do 1-5 on 245 you must do it)!!!
2 AIM: How do Plants Obtain Nutrients 3/20/15Do Now: How does the cuticle layer protect the plant?
4 What you will learn: Characteristics to all plants Plant adaptations that help them survive on landVascular vs. Nonvascular plantsVocabulary: Section 1-Cuticle, Cellulose, Vascular plant, Nonvascular plants
5 What is a plant?:Trees, flowers, vegetables, fruits, and field crops: rice, wheat and cornBetween 260, ,000 species have been identified and discoveredWithout plants most life on Earth would not exist-Can range in size from microscopic water ferns to giant sequoia trees that can be more than 100 m in height
6 *light *water *air *nutrients *time *room to grow 7 Basic needs of plants:*temperature*light*water*air*nutrients*time*room to grow
7 Have plants always existed on Earth? Ancestors -green algae (that lived in water)Have the same type of chlorophyll and carotenoids (red, orange, yellow) pigment used for photosynthesis)Fossil records: The oldest plant fossil is about 420 million years old.Ex. Cooksonia (spores are at the top of the stem)Cone- bearing: fossils date back to 300, 000 million years agoFlowering plant: origin is unknown
9 Plant Cell ReviewCell membrane, nucleus, cell wall, other organelles: Can you name some?Many have Chlorophyll-(pigment=color found inChloroplasts- Used for PhotosynthesisMany have a LARGE Central vacuole (regulates water and many substances are stored there including pigments- red, blue, purple flowers)
11 Ex. WOOD is used for construction FACTS:eukaryotes and autotrophic(true nucleus, can make their own food*Most live on land and have a way to obtain water.LAND ADAPTATIONS fig 4 in your textbookMany have a waterproof layer covering their leaves called the cuticle - prevents water loss or gain.Cell wall ( outside the membrane) contain:Cellulose- A chemical compound that plants can make out of sugar that’s help with structure and support-Some plants use secrete other substance into the cellulose to make the cell strongerEx. WOOD is used for construction
12 Land adaptations cont. REPRODUCTION: -Water resistant spores -Water resistant seeds in cones and flowering plants that develop into fruits
13 Classification of Plants Classified into groups called divisions (same as phylum in other kingdoms)2 groups=1)VASCULAR= Have tube-like structures that carry water, nutrients and other substances throughout the plant2)NONVASCULAR= No tube-like structuresAnd must use other ways to move water and other substances
14 Classification cont. NAMING PLANTS: Carlos Linnaeus BINOMIAL NOMENCLATURE- EX. Quercus alba : First word is genus, second is speciesKingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, species
15 Two major divisions of plants Vascular Plants - those that have vascular tissues (tubes that transport water throughout the cell
16 Nonvascular Plants - those that have no vascular tissues and must be completely connected to the ground
17 The three kinds of nonvascular plants are mosses, liverworts and hornworts.
19 Mosses: green fuzzy part you see is the gametophyte Root-like structures called rhizoids anchor the moss & absorb water and nutrients from the soil.Has a long thin stalk with a capsule on the end that contains spores. They live on tree trunks and rocks.
23 Hornworts look like liverworts except that they have curved structures growing out of them. They live in moist soil mixed in grasses.
24 2. SEED PRODUCERS VASCULAR PLANTS Two main divisions of vascular plants:1. SPORE PRODUCERS (ferns, club mosses and horsetails)2. SEED PRODUCERS
25 Ferns, club mosses and horsetails need moist surroundings so spores will survive and grow into gametophytes. When the gametophytes produce egg and sperm cells, there must be enough water nearby for fertilization to occur.Most club mosses and horsetails have become extinct …
26 All other plants are seed plants All other plants are seed plants. They have two types of vascular tissue (xylem and phloem) and use seeds to reproduce.
27 Cells of stems are xylem, or phloem - located in long strands called vascular bundles.
31 woodyStems that are hard and stiff. These stems usually don't die back to the ground during the winter. These are stems we use to make furniture and houses.
32 herbaceousPlants with stems that are usually soft. These stems die back to the ground every year.
33 Sporophyte - the plant produces spores Life Cycle of PlantsTwo stages:Sporophyte - the plant produces sporesGametophyte - the plant produces 2 kinds of sex cells (gametes) sperm cells and egg cells
34 Two types of seed plants: GYMNOSPERMS:Woody stems(conifers)Produce nakedseeds not enclosed in an ovaryNeedle like leaves
35 REPRODUCTION IN GYMNOSPERMS Conifers produce male and female cones - sometimes cones are produced on separate trees
36 Male cones produce pollen Females produce one ovule at base of cone
37 Pollen falls from male on to female. In time sperm and egg cell join in ovule.Zygote develops into embryo.
38 to female reproductive structure POLLINATION: Transfer of male reproductive structureSeed develops & cone size increases.Cones with immature seeds point up & cones with mature seeds point down.to female reproductivestructure
39 ANGIOSPERMS: PARTS OF THE FLOWER: Herbaceous stems 2nd type of seed plantANGIOSPERMS:Herbaceous stemsProduce stems in enclosed fruittwo characteristics - produce flowers and fruitPARTS OF THE FLOWER:
40 The stigma is the sticky surface at the top of the pistil; it traps and holds the pollen. The style is the tube- like structure that holds up the stigma. The style leads down to the ovary that contains the ovules.
41 The stamen has two parts: anthers and filaments The stamen has two parts: anthers and filaments. The anthers carry the pollen. These are generally yellow in color. Anthers are held up by a thread- like part called a filament.
42 Petals attract pollinators. The sepals are the green petal- like parts at the base of the flower. Sepals help protect the developing bud.
44 Seeds develop once the sperm cells fertilize the egg cells. The seed provides a covering to keep the young plant from drying out.All seeds have an embryo, stored food and a seed coat.
45 The young plant that develops from the fertilized egg is called the embryo. The embryo has the beginnings of the roots, stems and leaves.The embryo uses the stored food inside the seed to grow.The stored food is in cotyledons. The outer part is called the seed coat.
46 TWO TYPES OF ANGIOSPERMS DICOT: examples are roses, violets and dandelions, oak, maple, vanilla bean and appleFlowers have 4 or 5 petals or multiples of that numberLeaves are wide with veins that branch off each otherStems have bundles of vascular tissue arranged in a circle.
50 Life CycleA plant's life cycle describes how long a plant lives or how long it takes to grow, flower, and set seed. Plants can be either an annual, perennial, or biennial.
51 AnnualA plant that completes its life cycle in one growing season. It will grow, flower, set seed, and dieExamples: marigolds, tomatoes, and petunias.
52 Examples: daisies, chrysanthemums, and roses. PerennialA plant that lives for 3 or more years. It can grow, flower, and set seed for many years.Examples: daisies, chrysanthemums, and roses.(think bushes!)
53 BiennialA plant that needs two growing seasons to complete its life cycle. Produces leaves one season, rests in winter and grows flowers & seeds the next season.Examples: parsley, carrots, & foxglove.
54 Plant Parts - RootsThe roots provide support - anchor the plant & absorb water and nutrients needed for growth.I’M AROOT!