Stage 1. The pre-reader and the beginning reader: likes to look at books and likes to be read to likes to behave like a reader – for example, holds books and pretends to read them learns about words by looking at picture books and playing with blocks that have letters on them, magnetic letters, and so on learns about words from songs, rhymes, traffic signs, and logos on packages of food learns how text works – for example, where a story starts and finishes and which way the print proceeds begins to understand that his or her own thoughts can be put into print uses pictures and memory to tell and retell a story
Stage 2: The emerging reader is ready to receive instructions about reading learns that text is a common way to tell a story or to convey information begins to match written words to spoken words and to perceive relationships between sounds and letters begins to experiment with reading, and is willing to try to say words out loud when reading simple texts finds the pictures helpful in understanding the text, and learns that the words convey a message consistent with the pictures
Stage 3: The early reader develops more confidence and uses a variety of methods, such as relying on visual cues, to identify words in texts adapts his or her reading to different kinds of texts recognizes many words, knows a lot about reading, and is willing to try new texts
Stage 4: The Fluent reader thinks of reading as a good thing and does it automatically uses a variety of methods to identify words and their meanings can read various kinds of texts and predict events in a story relates the meaning of books to his or her own experience and knowledge, and understands what is new
Reading for Meaning Why do we read? Enjoyment Meaning (comprehension) Information Communication
Aspects of Reading How do we read? Children use lots of different ways to decode print... Picture cues Phonics - sounding out Meaning - predicting words through context Grammar - predicting words using sentence structure We teach all of these strategies in class lessons, independent and guided reading activities.
Picture cues Phonics - sounding out Meaning - predicting words through context Grammar - predicting words using sentence structure
None of these strategies will work on their own... However, phonics should ALWAYS be used when possible.
What is Phonics? Phonics is an approach to teaching reading and spelling that enables a child to identify, blend and segment the individual 'phonemes' or sounds that combine to form words. The term synthetic phonics refers to the direct, systematic and usually swift teaching of the phonic code; blending for reading and segmenting for spelling. At Fleckney Primary School we use the ‘Letters and Sounds’ scheme as the basis for our Phonics teaching.
Technical vocabulary! phoneme = the smallest unit of sound (b) grapheme = a letter or a group of letters representing a sound digraph = two letters which make a phoneme (ck) split digraph = a digraph in which the two letters are not adjacent (make) trigraph = three letters which make one sound (dge) four letter grapheme = four letters representing one sound (eigh) segmenting = breaking words into phonemes to spell blending =building words from phonemes to read
Phonics and being able to complete the process of reading is very important, but it is only a small part of reading... CONTEXT OR MEANING Meaning is paramount and is the only reason for reading! Confidence in own vocabulary enables a reader to predict text Understanding the text at every stage allows a reader to make an informed guess at an unknown word Having prior knowledge about the subject or story promotes engagement with text and allows children to decode AND understand new vocabulary
How to help your child to develop their ‘comprehension’ Talk about the text before reading Introduce any subject specific vocabulary before reading Ask questions about the text at each stage to ensure the child UNDERSTANDS the words they are reading At unknown words, prompt by discussing the topic area or story plot and encourage children to think logically about the context ALWAYS USE THIS STRATEGY ALONGSIDE PHONICS
Warming up the Text Discuss the title Discuss the pictures of the whole book What do you think is going to happen in the story? Has this ever happened to you? What do you already know about…..? Introduce new or difficult vocabulary before you start reading.NOW the child is ready to read THIS IS IMPORTANT FOR ALL CHILDREN, NOT JUST FS AND KS1!
Pause, Prompt, Praise Strategy For Correct Reading 1.Praise when a child reads a sentence or page correctly 2.Praise when a child self-corrects 3. Praise when a pupil gets a word correct after a prompt For Problem Reading WAIT to give the child a chance to solve the problem... Then... 1. Prompt with cues about the meaning of the story 2. Prompt with cues about the way the word looks 3. Ask the child to read on to the end of the sentence If the word is not correct after two attempts, say the word.
books magazines newspapers websites packets leaflets instructions signs and captions TV listings CD roms message s Talk…Listen…Talk…Listen…Talk…Listen…Talk…Listen…Ta lk …
Show your child that reading is important and enjoyable. A good ten minutes reading is better than a difficult half hour Be Positive! Stay Relaxed!
Inference Inference means – To draw a conclusion or make a judgement If you infer that something has happened, you do not see, hear, feel, smell, or taste the actual event. But from what you know, it makes sense to think that it has happened.
What do you infer? The baby was asleep upstairs in his bed. Suddenly, I heard a loud, "THUMP!" and he began crying hysterically. It was snowing heavily. The car behind me drove into a tree.
Other Aspects of Reading for Meaning... Developing an Opinion What do you think? Why do you think that? Finding Evidence in the Text Questioning Reading Fluently – Adding Expression Activating prior knowledge Prediction Constructing images – visualisation, drawing and drama Text structure analysis Talking to learnIntonation
What you will see in classrooms Activities and resources to promote the development of the process of reading Activities and resources to promote ‘reading for meaning’ Activities and resources to promote a love of reading Activities and resources to show the assessment of reading.