5 Saccharide: derived from the Greek sakchar, meaning sugar or sweetness #5 What is a common suffix for [specific] carbohydrates? List common carbohydrates-OseSaccharide: derived from the Greek sakchar, meaning sugar or sweetness
6 #5 Specific examples of carbohydrates MonosaccharidesExamples: glucose (C6H12O6), fructose, and galactose, riboseDisaccharidesExamples: sucrose, lactose, and maltose
7 #5 Specific examples of Carbohydrates Oligosaccharides: 3-10 sugarsRaffinose and stachyosePolysaccharidesExamples: starch, pectin, cellulose, and glycogenSugar alcoholsSorbitol, xylitol
8 Dehydration synthesis/condensation #6 & #9: What is the name of the reaction by which di-, oligo-, and polysaccharides are formed? What is the name of the bonds between carbohydrates monomers?Dehydration synthesis/condensation(#9 )This type of rxn forms a glycosidic bond (C-O-C) also called glycosidic linkageTwo forms:alpha and beta
10 10. How do alpha and beta glycosidic bonds differ and how can this affect digestion? Alpha differs from the beta glycosidic bond only in the angle of formation between the two sugarsAlpha-glycosidic linkage is below the plane of the rings and the beta glycosidic linkages are aboveHumans lack enzymes needed to cleave beta-glycosidic linkages – lactose intolerance
11 16. Why are oligosaccharides "gassy"? Can’t be broken down in small intestine and become “food” for bacteria of large intestineBacterial metabolism of oligosaccharides results in gas byproducts
12 The addition of a water molecule across a bond 7. What is the name of the reaction by which di-, oligo-, and polysaccharides are broken down?HydrolysisThe addition of a water molecule across a bondThe breaking down of a chemical compound into two or more simpler compounds by reacting with water.
14 #8 – Summarize the relationship between dehydration synthesis and hydrolysis They are reverse rxns, where one is a synthesis rxn and one is a break down rxnHydrolysis Dehydration SynthesisDisaccharide + H20 MonoSach + MonoSach
16 11. In your own words, describe how/why cyclic carbohydrates form.
17 12. How are carbohydrates found in humans classified? 6By number of carbonsTrisosesPentosesHexosesSeptoses….5
18 Aldoses – contain aldehyde functional group 13. Carbs are also classified by their functional groups - what are the names of these classifications?Aldoses – contain aldehyde functional groupTerminal carbonyl C=OKetoses – contain ketone functional groupInternal carbonylCarbonyl carbonpolyhydroxyaldehydes
19 Carbonyl CarbonIn the closed-ring (cyclic) structure, the carbonyl carbon is the one which is attached to the O of the ring and an OH group
20 14. Where can your body storage glucose? Liver as glycogenSmaller amounts in muscles and brain as glycogenCirculates in blood stream in very specific rangehe glycogen is able to be broken back down into glucose when the muscle contracts and requires energy. The body is able to store 500 g of glycogen, roughly equivalent to 2,000 calories, in the muscles. Therefore, if you did not eat for a day, you will have drastically depleted these stores. After an intense workout, when these glycogen stores have been tapped into, consuming carbohydrates will replenish these reserves.
21 15. What are indigestible forms of polysaccharides known as? Dietary fiber
22 17. Explain the basic relationship between sugar and diabetes. Insulin: pancreatic hormone which signals cells to uptake glucose from blood (into cells)People with Diabetes either do not produce insulin or do not respond to insulin that is present
23 18. How does the glycemic index classify carbohydrates? By how quickly and how high a specific carbohydrate boosts blood glucose levels compared to pure glucose
24 19. List food sources of carbohydrates Grains (breads, rice, pasta, cereal)FruitDairyBeans, legumesSoda, candy, etc.
25 20. List some functions of carbohydrates: Energy source for cells; primary for brainProtein sparingBreakdown of fats and preventing ketosisBiological recognition*Dietary fiber & digestive health*Flavor and sweeteners