Presentation on theme: "CHAPTER 22 ALCOHOL. BASIC TERMS Ethanol: The type of alcohol in alcoholic beverages. Fermentation: The chemical action of yeast on sugars. Depressant:"— Presentation transcript:
BASIC TERMS Ethanol: The type of alcohol in alcoholic beverages. Fermentation: The chemical action of yeast on sugars. Depressant: A drug that slows the central nervous system. Intoxication: The state in which the body is poisoned by alcohol or another substance and the person’s physical and mental control is significantly reduced.
WHAT’S IN A DRINK? Type of drink Volume of serving (in ounces) Concentration of alcohol expressed as a percent Concentration of alcohol expressed as a percent in decimal form Total amount of alcohol (in ounces) Beer1250.050.6 Wine5120.120.6 Hard liquor1.5400.400.6
THE PATH THAT ALCOHOL TRAVELS 1. Alcohol enters the mouth. 2. Alcohol travels down the throat to the stomach. 3. Alcohol is absorbed into the blood by the stomach and small intestine. 4. Alcohol travels through the blood to the water-containing organs of the body. 5. Alcohol affects many brain functions. 6. Alcohol is metabolized in the liver. 7. Alcohol is excreted from the body after processing by the kidneys.
BLOOD ALCOHOL CONCENTRATION BLOOD ALCOHOL CONCENTRATION (BAC)- Amount of alcohol in a person’s blood, expressed as a percentage.
0.02 – 0.03 BAC slight euphoria, loss of shyness depressant effects are not apparent mildly relaxed and maybe a little lightheaded 0.04 – 0.06 BAC euphoria feeling of well-being, relaxation, lower inhibitions, sensation of warmth minor impairment of reasoning and memory lowering of caution exaggerated behavior intensified emotions
0.07 – 0.09 BAC.08 is legally impaired and it is illegal to drive at this level slight impairment of balance, speech, vision, reaction time, and hearing euphoria reduced judgment and self-control impaired caution, reason and memory belief that they are functioning better than they really are 0.13 – 0.15 BAC gross motor impairment and lack of physical control blurred vision major loss of balance severely impaired judgment and perception reduced euphoria dysphoria (anxiety, restlessness) beginning to appear
0.16 – 0.19 BAC dysphoria predominates nausea may appear drinker has the appearance of a “sloppy drunk” 0.20 BAC feeling dazed, confused, and otherwise disoriented may need help to stand or walk if injured, may not feel the pain nausea and vomiting impaired gag reflex—drinker can choke if they vomit blackouts—drinker may not remember what has happened
0.25 BAC severely impaired mental, physical, and sensory functions increased risk of asphyxiation from choking on vomit increased risk of serious injury by falls or other unintentional accidents 0.30 BAC stupor little comprehension of where they are may pass out suddenly and be difficult to awaken 0.35 BAC level of surgical anesthesia coma is possible 0.40 BAC + onset of coma possible death due to respiratory arrest
Binge Drinking: Drinking 5 or more alcoholic drinks at one sitting. – Most popular among teens and can lead to … Alcohol Poisoning: a severe and potentially fatal physical reaction to an alcohol over dose. Your body vomiting from excessive amount of alcohol in the blood stream/stomach Mental confusion, stupor, coma, inability to be roused, vomiting, and seizures. Slow respiration. Irregular heart beat. Hypothermia, or low body temperature. Severe dehydration from vomiting. Death Blood alcohol Concentration: the amount of alcohol in a person’s blood, expressed as a percent.
Fetal Alcohol Syndrome: a group of alcohol-related defects that include physical and mental problems. The baby may be born with a small head and/or deformities of the face, hands, or feet. Heart, liver, and kidney defect and vision and hearing problems. Difficulty growing and learning, attention, memory, and problem solving. Leading known cause of mental retardation.
Alcoholism: a disease in which a person has a physical or psychological dependence on drinks that contain alcohol. Alcoholic: an addict who is dependent on alcohol. Craving: has a compulsive or strong need to drink. Loss of control: Cannot limit their drink. Physical dependence: experiences withdrawal symptoms (nausea, headache, anxiety, Tolerance: Needs increasingly greater amounts to feel the same effect. May display harmful behaviors. Hangover
SHORT TERM EFFECTS OF ALCOHOL NERVOUS SYSTEM BRAIN- Less able to control the body. Movement, speech, and vision may be affected. MEMORY- Concentration and thought process becomes dulled. JUDGEMENT- Loss of judgment and coordination.
SHORT TERM EFFECTS OF ALCOHOL CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM HEART- At low intake: increase heart rate. At high intake: heart rate and blood pressure decrease. Heart rhythm becomes irregular. BLOOD VESSELS- Expand. The increased surface area of the blood vessels allows body heat to escape and the body’s temperature to drop.
SHORT TERM EFFECTS OF ALCOHOL DIGESTIVE SYSTEM STOMACH- Some alcohol passes quickly from the stomach to the bloodstream. Stomach acid increases. LIVER- Toxic chemicals are released as the liver metabolizes alcohol, causing inflammation and scaring. KIDNEYS- Increase urine output, which can lead to dehydration.
SHORT TERM EFFECTS OF ALCOHOL RESPIRATORY SYSTEM LUNGS- Carbon dioxide formed by the liver is released from the body through the lungs. BREATHING- May become slow, irregular, or stop.
FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE THE SHORT TERM EFFECTS OF ALCOHOL BODY SIZE & GENDER FOOD AMOUNT & RATE OF INTAKE
LONG TERM EFFECTS OF ALCOHOL ABUSE CARDIOVASCULAR CHANGES HEART- Becomes enlarged due to increased workload caused by alcohol. HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE- Damages the heart, can cause heart attack and stroke.
LONG TERM EFFECTS OF ALCOHOL ABUSE LIVER PROBLEMS FATTY LIVER- Fats build up in the liver and cannot be broken down; excess fat blocks the flow of blood to liver cells, leading to cell death. ALCOHOLIC HEPATITIS- Inflammation and infection of the liver. CIRRHOSIS- Liver tissue is replaced with useless scar tissue; can lead to liver failure and death unless a transplant is preformed.
LONG TERM EFFECTS OF ALCOHOL ABUSE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM PROBLEMS IRRITATION- Digestive liner is damaged. Can lead to stomach ulcers and cancer of the stomach and esophagus. PANCREAS PROBLEMS LINING OF THE PANCREAS- Swells to block the passage from the pancreas to the small intestine.