Presentation on theme: "What does it mean to be organic in Earth Science? Popular culture? In Home Decorating?"— Presentation transcript:
What does it mean to be organic in Earth Science? Popular culture? In Home Decorating?
is the chemistry of the compounds of Carbon. occur extensively in nature. All living things are mainly composed of carbon. Muy importante: Carbon is able to form four covalent bonds with other atoms and even other carbons.
Solubility: are nonpolar and tend to dissolve in nonpolar solutions. (Like Dissolve Like) are generally not soluble in water. are generally non-electrolytes. The organic acids, that are electrolytes, are very weak.
have low melting points. have very slow reactions. Are usually sped up by adding a catalyst. Usually H 2 SO 4(aq) have strong covalent bonds
forms four covalent bonds form a tetrahedron shape around the Carbon nucleus Carbon atoms share electrons w/each other Carbon atoms can share more than one electron forming double and triple bonds
The covalent bond is usually represented by a short dash or line representing one pair of shared electrons. In organic chemistry, up to three dashes may be connected between each Carbon atom. It is important to remember that molecules and organic compounds are in 3D, (but we will usually represent them as if they were pressed flat on the paper or chalk board.)
All SINGLE BONDS saturated hydrocarbons with the general formula of C n H 2n+2 (n= # of Carbons) Also called the Methane Series or Paraffin Series The suffix is “-ane”
Contain one Double Bond Therefore are Unsaturated Hydrocarbons Follow the Formula C n H 2n Suffix is “-ene”
Contain one Triple Bond Therefore are unsaturated Hydrocarbons Follow Formula C n H 2n-2 Have Suffix “-yne” So you must memorize all that, right?
No, of course not, crack out your trusty reference tables…
organic compounds can be classified into groups with related structures &properties. These groups are called a Homologous Series Each member of a Series differs from the preceding member by a common increment, usually a -CH 2 -.
As the members of a Homologous Series increase in molecular size; Boiling Point increases due to more Van der Waals forces Freezing Point increases due to more Van der Waals forces Homologous Series of hydrocarbons include the Alkanes, Alkenes, Alkynes and Aromatics.
compounds that have the same molecular formula, but different structure. The compounds; CH 3 CH 2 CHO (propanal) CH 3 COCH 3 (acetone)
What would an Alkadiene contain? Hydrocarbon with TWO Double Bonds Suffix is “-diene” (2 enes) Alkadienes are isomers with Alkynes When they put these on the exam they expect you to get them wrong. They are called “discriminator questions”
When bonding something besides hydrogen to the carbon it dramatically changes how the molecule behaves. The general categories can have all kinds of carbons and hydrogens bonded on the end but as long as they have the functional group they are THAT kind of molecule
Polymerization is the formation of a large molecule from smaller molecules.
Composed of many repeating units called monomers Starch, Cellulose, and proteins are natura l polymers Nylon and polyethylene are synthetic poly mers Polymerization is the process of joining monomers PVC stand for poly vinyl chloride…