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Foreign and Domestic Problems

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Presentation on theme: "Foreign and Domestic Problems"— Presentation transcript:

1 Foreign and Domestic Problems
From Jefferson to Madison – Causes of the War of 1812


3 African Pirates American merchant ships attacked off the coast of North Africa Jefferson passed a law requiring all ships to be escorted through the Mediterranean Sea by the American Navy Americans advised to keep friendships with nations but avoid their entanglements foreign nations Who first had this idea? Difficult for Americans to stay out of foreign affairs when involved so heavily with overseas trade

4 Fighting with Britain and France
Britain & France still at war in 1804 American ships had neutral rights & traded with both Both countries attacked our ships France seized & searched ships trading with Britain Britain blocked French coasts Britain impressed (kidnapped) American sailors to work on British ships British attacked an American ship, Chesapeake, in 1807 Many demanded war HMS Leopard, attacked the Chesapeake

5 Impacting Trade Jefferson did not push for war
“Peaceable coercion” was his terminology Congress passed the Embargo Act American ships not allowed to trade to European nations The act was a disaster American farmers and merchants lost important markets for their products Many lost income Many violated the embargo Congress eventually repealed it


7 War Fever President Madison saw Britain as the greater threat
Interfered with shipping, impressed sailors, and resisted in the west : white settlers attacked American Indian lands in the west Natives renewed trading relationships with British in Canada 1811 – General William Henry Harrison attacked American Indians @ Prophetstown & proclaim a victory in the Battle of Tippecanoe Tecumseh (Indian leader) joined forces with the British


9 Declaration of War War Hawks pushed for a declaration of war with Great Britain Led by Henry Clay of Kentucky and John C. Calhoun of S. Carolina Their nationalism led to a new patriotism not seen since the Revolution Many wanted British aid to Natives to be stopped Others wanted war because of what happened at sea June 1, 1812 – President James Madison asked Congress for declaration of war Congress agreed First time we declared war on a foreign nation

10 Important Dates Year Export Value 1794 $ 33 million 1801 $ 94 million
British-French Wars British-French Truce Napoleonic War Embargo Act War of 1812 Year Export Value 1794 $ 33 million 1801 $ 94 million 1803 $ 54 million 1807 $ 108 million 1809 $ 22 million 1812 $ 61 million 1814 $ 7 million Naval Forces of the War of 1812 Vessel Type # of Guns American Navy British Navy Ship of the Line 64-120 124 Frigate 26-50 8 116 Smaller Vessels < 24 > 360



13 Presidential Candidate
Party Home State Popular Vote Electoral Vote Count % James Madison  (Incumbent) Democratic-Republican Virginia 140,431 50.4% 128 DeWitt Clinton New York 132,781 47.6% 89 Rufus King Federalist 5,574 2.0% Total 278,786 100.0% 217 Needed to win 109

14 British aided Natives against Americans
War between Britain and France…Britain blocked our coast and stops our foreign trade When attacking American ships, the British kidnaped sailors – “impressment” Madison asked Congress to declare war against Great Britain – War of 1812 British aided Natives against Americans

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