2 Explain nebular hypothesis. Objective 2 Standards1a. Students know how the differences and similarities among the sun, the terrestrial planets, and the gas planets may have been established during the formation of the solar system.1b. Students know the evidence from Earth and moon rocks indicates that the solar system was formed from a nebular cloud of dust and gas approx. 4.6 billion years ago.1c. Students know the evidence from geological studies of Earth and other planets suggest that the early Earth was very different from Earth today.Objective 1Explain nebular hypothesis.Objective 2Describe the land, atmosphere, and oceans of early Earth.Objective 3Identify the basic characteristics of the inner planets.Objective 4Identify the basic characteristics of the outer planets.AssessmentCh.27 TestReviewDaily Bellwork, Science Starters
3 VocabularyCreate flashcards for the following key terms. They begin on page 685.Solar SystemPlanetSolar NebulaTerrestrial PlanetGas GiantKuiper Belt
4 INTERACTIVE The Planets Song Create a Mnemonic to Remember the order of the planets… Example: My Very Eager Mother Just Served Us Noodles
7 Formation of the Solar System Nebular HypothesisThe sun and the planets formed at the same time from a rotating cloud of dust and gas called a NEBULA.Gravity pulled the gas and dust closer and closer together creating heat and density.When the temp. became hot enough (10 million degrees) a star was born—our sun.99% of all the matter in the nebula is in the sun.
8 Nebular Hypothesis Cont. While the sun was forming in the center, PLANETESIMALS were forming in the outer regions.PLANETESIMALS were small bodies or ‘chunks’ of debris that collided with other planetesimals which eventually (through gravity and collisions) formed larger bodies called PROTOPLANETS.PROTOPLANETS became PLANETS as they got larger.
10 Formation of the Inner Planets How the new planets developed depended on their distance from the Sun.Those near the sun (Mercury, Venus, Earth, and Mars) contained heavy elements (iron and nickel) and they lost most of their gases (gravity was not strong enough to hold them in).Denser material sank to center of planets and layers formed.Inner planets are closest to the sun, dense, and relatively small.
11 Formation of the Outer Planets Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune were far from the sun and formed in cold areas where they did not lose their gases (helium and hydrogen) or their ices ( water, methane ice, ammonia ice).Ices would later melt and the outer planets are composed mainly of liquids and gases.
12 Ancient Earth Originally VERY hot Denser materials (iron) sank to center, formed 3 distinct layers (core, mantle, crust)Early atmosphere=lots of volcanoes outgassing Nitrogen, water vapor, ammonia, methane, argon, sulfur dioxide, carbon dioxideNO OXYGEN in the early atmosphereEarly organisms began to photosynthesize which led to the production of Oxygen…2 billion years ago Oxygen level significantly increased and our atmosphere became like it is today.
18 Venus 2nd planet from the sun Slow rotation…once every 243 days Earth’s ‘twin’…same size, mass, densityAtmosphere: 90 times the pressure of Earth, 96% carbon dioxideThe CO2 creates a huge Greenhouse Effect, creating temps of 464 degrees Celsius.Hottest planet in solar system
21 Mars 4th planet from the sun Rotates every 24 hours, 37 min, revolves around sun in 687 daysAxis tilts like Earth, has seasonsLarge volcanoes, seismic activity (marsquakes)Once had lots of water…now only in polar ice caps, possibly undergroundVery thin atmosphere…temps range from 20 to minus 130 degrees Celsius
24 Outer Planets Today Separated from inner planets by the asteroid belt. Also known as the Gas GiantsTheir large size led to greater gravity which let them keep all their gases (unlike the inner planets) and they have thick atmospheresCores are rock and metalAll four gas giants have ring systems
25 Jupiter 5th planet from the sun Largest Planet At least 60 moons, several thin ringsAtmosphere= 92% hydrogen and heliumTemp. is -160 degrees in the atmosphereLightning storms and thunderstorms (larger than on Earth)Great Red Spot = a giant (2x the size of planet Earth), rotating storm similar to a hurricaneJupiter’s interior is very hot…30,000 degrees! Mostly a liquid planet
27 Saturn 6th planet from the sun Orbits the sun ever 29.5 years Very cold planet due to its distance from the sun (-176 degrees)30+moonsMostly hydrogen and helium with a rocky coreLeast dense planet in the solar systemComplex ring system from comets and other space debris
29 Uranus 7th planet from the sun 3rd largest At least 24 moons and 11 thin ringsRevolves around the sun in 84 yearsInstead of rotating perpendicular to its orbit, it rotates parallel every 17 hoursAtmosphere is mostly hydrogen and helium and methane. Blue color comes from methane gasCold planet…-214 degrees, but could be higher under all the clouds
31 Neptune 8th planet from the sun, similar to Uranus in size and mass 164 years to revolve around sun, rotates in 16 hoursAtmosphere—Hydrogen, helium, methaneStrongest winds in the solar system (1000 km/h)
35 INTERACTIVE/Assessment Compare and Contrast the Inner and Outer Planets…InnerOuter
36 INTERACTIVE/Assessment Using your Venn Diagram as a guide, write an essay comparing Inner and outer planets. --Intro Paragraph --Inner --Outer Minimum of 200 words
37 INTERACTIVE/Assessment In groups you will create a poster for your planet. You need to include:Drawing of planet7 or more facts about your planetWhere in the solar system is it?How big?Moons?Rings?Atmosphere?Rotates?Revolves?Temperature?Other