Presentation on theme: "Characteristics of Living Things Living things are made of cells. Living things reproduce Living things are based on genetic code Living things grow and."— Presentation transcript:
Characteristics of Living Things Living things are made of cells. Living things reproduce Living things are based on genetic code Living things grow and develop Living things obtain and use energy Living things respond to the environment Living things maintain a stable internal environment Living things change over time
Today’s Modern Kingdoms Prokaryotes- simple cells 1.Eubacteria- “normal” bacteria found everywhere 2.Archaebacteria- unusual bacteria found in hot springs, brine pools and mud Eukaryotes- complex cells with nucleii 3.Fungus- mold, mushrooms, etc. decomposers 4.Protists- microscopic “left over” group 5.Plants- make food 6.Animals- consumers of food 1 2
Bacteria How is the world we live in impacted by things that you can’t see? Health & Social Education
Bacteria Bacteria are living things that are neither plants nor animals. –Two Kingdoms: Eubacteria & Archaebacteria –Prokaryotes – all bacteria. have no nucleus or complex organelles
Where??? Eubacteria live almost everywhere: –Fresh water –Salt water –Land –On & within your body!
Archaebacteria Chemically different from eubacteria –Lack peptidoglycan cell walls DNA sequences differ from eubacteria “Extremophiles” –Can live in extremely harsh environments –Acidic pH, temperature, saline, anaerobic(no oxygen)
Archaebacteria vs. Eubacteria Live in extreme environments Chemically different Cell wall lacks peptidoglycan (carbohydrate) Live in non-extreme environments Chemically different Cell wall contains peptidoglycan (carbohydrate)
Bacteria Reproduction Binary Fission: –1.Doubles in size –2.Doubles DNA –3.Splits into two Conjugation : –1.Bridge forms between two cells –2.Genes move from one cell to another Spore Formation: –1.Thick wall within bacteria forms to protect its DNA –2.Cell is now a spore, and goes into hibernation until more favorable conditions return
Growth Rates Given good growing conditions, a bacteria can grow and divide at astonishing rates. If the environment is optimal, bacteria cells can divide as often as every twenty minutes.
Disease Caused by Bacteria Pathogens -disease causing agents Two ways bacteria cause disease –1. Digesting cells –2. Produce toxins
Preventing Bacterial Disease Antibiotics: block the growth and reproduction of bacteria(not viruses) Antibiotics: block the growth and reproduction of bacteria(not viruses) Vaccines: weakened pathogens injected into body to produce resistance Vaccines: weakened pathogens injected into body to produce resistance
Methods used to control bacterial growth… 1.Sterilization by heat-great heat 2.Disinfectants-chemical solutions that kill pathogenic bacteria 3.Food storage and processing-refrigeration, canning, preservatives 4.Dehydrate food
Importance of Bacteria Decomposers –Recycle nutrients from dead organisms back into the ecosystem –Ex: A tree dies; bacteria attack and digest dead tissue, break it down into simpler material and return it to the soil.
Human Uses of Bacteria 1.Production of foods and beverages 2.Oil spill clean up 3.Removal of waste and poison from water 4.Mining of minerals 5.making essential vitamins in body 6.Production of medicines and chemicals
Where is good bacteria found? 1.Digestive tract 2.Skin 3.Mouth 4.Urinary tract 5.Genital areas