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Judaism, Christianity, and Islam

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1 Judaism, Christianity, and Islam
Three world religions Judaism, Christianity, and Islam

2 Judaism, Christianity, and Islam are major world religions
Judaism, Christianity, and Islam are major world religions. They are all examples of monotheism, or the belief in one supreme god.

3 Judaism It is the oldest of these three religions.
The Israelites were the first people to practice this religion. They were from Southwest Asia, or the Middle East. Followers of Judaism today are known as Jews. The Torah is the Jewish holy book. It tells the early history and beliefs of the Jews.

4 Judaism The Jews believe that they are descendants of Abraham and Sarah, who first worshipped the one God, or Yahweh. The Torah says that God made a covenant, or an agreement, with Abraham. The deal was for Abraham to move to Canaan/Palestine and he would be blessed and nations would be blessed through him. Abraham’s Israelite descendants believe they are God’s “chosen people.”

5 Judaism-The Ten Commandments
The Ten Commandments are the most important laws in the Jewish faith. They believe that the Commandments were revealed to a prophet, or messenger of God, called Moses. These rules were based on the belief of one God, which was different from neighboring settlements. The Israelites were loyal to Yahweh only and could not worship any other gods. They believed that all people should be treated fairly.

6 Judaism-The Jews c BC, the Israelites created a kingdom in modern day Israel under King David. Jerusalem was the capital. The kingdom eventually split into two states—Israel and Judah. The people of Judah would later be known as Jews. The Jews were eventually conquered after several centuries. This lead to the Diaspora , when the Jewish people spread throughout many countries around the globe.

7 Judaism Today Despite many hardships, the Jewish people have remained faithful to their heritage. There are many Jewish holidays which are: Passover-The story of the Israelites departure from Egypt Rosh Hashanah-The Jewish New Year Yom Kippur-The holiest day in Judaism. Also called the Day of Atonement. It is observed by a 24 hour period of prayer and fasting.

8 Christianity Christianity also began in Southwest Asia (Middle East) among the Jews. Later, Christianity would spread to non-Jews and became on the most powerful influences in Western civilization.

9 Christianity-Jesus A young Jewish man named Jesus began preaching in modern day Israel. He taught that God loved everyone, even sinners. To be forgiven of sins all you had to do was trust that God would send a Messiah, or savior, to deliver them. In AD 30, Jesus and his followers went to Jerusalem to celebrate Passover. Many greeted Jesus as the Messiah. This event worried other Jews and Romans. They convicted Jesus of treason and was nailed to a cross.

10 Christianity-Jesus However, many of his followers claimed that Jesus had risen from the dead and had visited them. They began preaching that Jesus was the Son of God. Anyone who would believe his teachings would have eternal life after death. They began calling him Christ, after the Greek word Christos, meaning “messiah.”

11 Spread of Christianity
The disciples spread Jesus’ teachings throughout the Mediterranean and beyond. People who accepted this belief became known as Christians. Stories about Jesus’ life and teachings and other Christian writings became known as the New Testament, which later became a part of the Bible. The Bible is the holy book of Christianity.

12 Spread of Christianity.
Three major groups make up Christianity today. These groups are: Roman Catholic Protestant Eastern Orthodox Christian holidays include: Christmas-The celebration of Jesus’ birth Good Friday-The day of Jesus’ crucifixion. Easter-The day that Jesus rose from the dead. This is the most important Christian holy day.

13 Islam Islam also began in Southwest Asia.
Islam began in the AD 600s in the Arabian Peninsula. In Arabic, Islam means “surrender” to the will of God, or Allah. Followers of Islam are called Muslims. They believe that Muhammad is the last and greatest prophet of Islam—following Abraham, Moses, and Jesus.

14 Islam-Muhammad Muhammad was born c. AD 570 in Makkah (Mecca), a trading and religious center in western Arabia. Arab pilgrims traveled to Kaaba, a shrine that housed a sacred black stone. In Islamic teachings, in AD 610 Muhammad heard the angel Gabriel calling him to preach about God. He told the people of Makkah that Allah is the only God and all believers are equal. He urged the rich to give to the poor. Muhammad saw life as preparation for the Day of Judgment, or the day when God would punish evildoers and reward the just.

15 Islam-Muhammad Muhammad’s teachings angered the rich merchants. They made threats against his life. In AD 622, Muhammad and hundreds of followers traveled to Yathrib (modern day Madinah) This event became known as the Hijrah, or migration. In Madinah, he united the people politically and made them proud of their new faith. Muhammad’s forces forced off armies from Makkah. He made Makkah the center of Islam. He dedicated the Kaaba to the worship of Allah.

16 Islam-Muhammad All of Arabia had accepted Islam by Muhammad’s death in AD 632. Merchants, scholars, and armies spread Islam outside of Arabia. Over many centuries, Islamic empires ruled vast lands in Asia, North Africa, and parts of Europe. Islam eventually branched into two main groups: Sunnis and Shiites Most people are Shiites. These groups differ on who they believe should rule in the Islamic world.

17 Islam-The Quran The Quran is the Muslim holy book.
Muslims believe The Quran is the direct word of Allah as given to Muhammad. It presents the five pillars of faith, or the five obligations all Muslims must fulfill. 1st Pillar-The confession, or statement of faith. “There is no God but Allah, and Muhammad is his messenger.” 2nd Pillar- Muslims must pray five times a day, facing the holy city of Makkah. 3rd Pillar-Muslims must give charity.

18 Islam-The Quran 4th Pillar- Muslims must fast. They cannot eat or drink during the daylight hours of Ramadan. Ramadan is the month where God began to reveal to Quran to Muhammad. 5th Pillar- Muslims must make a pilgrimage to Makkah to pray, at least once in their lifetime. This journey is called the hajj. The reward for fulfilling all five religious duties is paradise.

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