2 The forerunner of the camera: The Camera Obscura Translates to “dark room”A dark chamber or room with a hole (later a lens) in one wall, through which images of objects outside the room were projected on the opposite wall.
3 The camera obscura was initially used as a drawing aid:
5 Camera Obscura concept used in a room in a house:
6 The dilemna…Although the camera obscura was a great tool for projecting an image, the problem was that there was not a solution for making the image permanent.
7 Who’s Who? Photography contributors and their advancements in the field of photography…
8 Joseph NiepceJoseph Niepce was credited for producing the world’s first photograph in 1826An 8-hour exposure was needed to create the photographAlthough far from perfect, this represented a milestone in the advancement of art
9 The World’s First Photograph Joseph Niepce - 1826
10 Louis Daguerre 1837 1837- Recorded an image that was clear and sharp Exposure lasted 10 – 20 minutesUsed methods others could easily duplicateNamed his process: Daguerreotype1837One drawback: the image is a POSITIVE- and only one print can be made
11 Mathew BradyWorked with a “negative” image with a reverse of white and black valuesThis allowed for unlimited multiples to be printed!Famous for his portrait of Abraham Lincoln
12 Julia Margaret Cameron Use of strong contrast of dark and lightEmphasis on the head and faceA soft – faintly blurred – focusFondness for a profile view – as we see in the portraits below:
13 George EastmanFounded the Kodak company, which was once widely recognized for quality photographic suppliesIn 1888 introduced roll film, which revolutionized the photo process. This meant that instead of plates and sheets, film could be bought in rolls and made more accessible to the general public
14 Working with film- The Darkroom A “dark” space generally set up with yellow or red lights.Enlargers are used to hold film, and project an image onto light sensitive paper.When light filters through the “negative” of the film and hits light sensitive paper, a “positive” print is created.Paper passes through a set of chemicals- and “voila!”, a print is made!
15 Dorothea LangeWorked for the Farm Security Administration (FSA) to record conditions across the nationDevoted her attention to migrants who had been uprooted from their farms during the DepressionCreated a photograph that touched the hearts of the world:Migrant Mother (1936)
16 Henry Robinson Experimented with artistic capabilities of photography Used photographs with his audience in mindCreated a scene by creating a composite of five separate negativesWanted to tell a story through the use of actors
17 Alfred StieglitzApplied an approach of “pure” or “straight” photographyConsidered it a point of honor not to crop or manipulate a photoEmphasis on formal values and faithfulness to the essence of the medium
18 Ansel Adams Known for his photos of nature Stressed the need to consider the finished composition in advancePracticed photography as an art
24 The Digital Revolution… Introduction of CCD sensors to record an image- replacing film and changing the process of photography.Based on the revelation of taking a picture and seeing it immediately on the camera.Began to work with image editing programs- most significantly- Photoshop.Further challenged the idea of image editing vs. the photographers ability to capture the image without the need for manipulation.
25 And now- something kinda funky- Darkroom Process Combined with Digital Process: Photographers with the “Indiegogo project” are coming up with creative methods of producing images using a smartphone that are developed with traditional darkroom techniques.Check out this cool video:
26 Photo Activity! We will be making PHOTOGRAMS in the darkroom! Follow the sheet- and work with your table to come up with a creative composition with various materials!
27 PHOTOGRAM set-up:Half the class will do this today, half tomorrow. If you are not in the darkroom: either work on your journal, or review the PowerPoint and chapter on photography- as we will have a 10 point quiz tomorrow!Pair up and set up a random mix of objects on a 5 x 7 sheet of paper.Consider a variety of shapes, materials (some transparent, some not), and size.Follow the steps in the packet.After you make a “negative” print, I will show you the process of making a “positive” print.