Presentation on theme: "Chapter 6 The Executive Branch"— Presentation transcript:
1 Chapter 6 The Executive Branch American Civics4/20/2017Chapter 6 The Executive BranchSection 1: The PresidencySection 2: Powers and Roles of the PresidentSection 3: Executive Departments and the CabinetSection 4: Independent Agencies and Regulatory CommissionsThe power of the Executive Branch is vested in the President of the United States, who also acts as head of state and Commander-in-Chief of the armed forces. The President is responsible for implementing and enforcing the laws written by Congress and, to that end, appoints the heads of the federal agencies, including the Cabinet. The Vice President is also part of the Executive Branch, ready to assume the Presidency should the need ariseThe Cabinet and independent federal agencies are responsible for the day-to-day enforcement and administration of federal laws. These departments and agencies have missions and responsibilities as widely divergent as those of the Department of Defense and the Environmental Protection Agency, the Social Security Administration and the Securities and Exchange Commission.Including members of the armed forces, the Executive Branch employs more than 4 million Americans.Fifteen executive departments — each led by an appointed member of the President's Cabinet — carry out the day-to-day administration of the federal government. They are joined in this by other executive agencies such as the CIA and Environmental Protection Agency, the heads of which are not part of the Cabinet, but who are under the full authority of the President.The Executive Office of the President (EOP) consists of the immediate staff to the President, along with entities such as the Office of Management and Budget and the Office of the United States Trade Representative.The Executive Branch conducts diplomacy with other nations, and the President has the power to negotiate and sign treaties, which also must be ratified by two-thirds of the Senate.The President can issue executive orders, which direct executive officers or clarify and further existing laws. The President also has unlimited power to extend pardons and clemencies for federal crimes, except in cases of impeachment.Chapter 6
2 Section 1: The Presidency The Main IdeaThe president and the vice president are required to have certain qualifications.Reading FocusWhat are the qualifications and terms of office for the presidency?What are the duties of the vice president?What are the rules of succession for the presidency?
3 Qualifications for the presidency: American Civics4/20/2017Section 1: The PresidencyQualifications for the presidency:Set forth by the U.S. ConstitutionNative-born U.S. citizenAt least 35 years of ageA resident of the United States for at least 14 yearsAge and Citizenship requirements - US Constitution, Article II, Section 1No person except a natural born citizen, or a citizen of the United States, at the time of the adoption of this Constitution, shall be eligible to the office of President; neither shall any person be eligible to that office who shall not have attained to the age of thirty-five years, and been fourteen years a resident within the United States.Term limit amendment - US Constitution, Amendment XXII, Section 1 - ratified February 27, 1951No person shall be elected to the office of the President more than twice, and no person who has held the office of President, or acted as President, for more than two years of a term to which some other person was elected President shall be elected to the office of the President more than once.Article II, Section 1, Clause 5 of the Constitution sets the requirements to hold office. A president must:be a natural-born citizen of the United States;[note 1]be at least thirty-five years old;have been a permanent resident in the United States for at least fourteen years.A person who meets the above qualifications is still disqualified from holding the office of president under any of the following conditions:Under the Twenty-second Amendment, no person can be elected president more than twice. The amendment also specifies that if any eligible person who serves as president or acting president for more than two years of a term for which some other eligible person was elected president, the former can only be elected president once. Scholars disagree whether anyone no longer eligible to be elected president could be elected vice president, pursuant to the qualifications set out under the Twelfth Amendment.Under Article I, Section 3, Clause 7, upon conviction in impeachment cases, the Senate has the option of disqualifying convicted individuals from holding other federal offices, including the presidency.Under Section 3 of the Fourteenth Amendment, no person who swore an oath to support the Constitution, and later rebelled against the United States, can become president. However, this disqualification can be lifted by a two-thirds vote of each house of Congress.Chapter 6
4 Terms of office & Salary: American Civics4/20/2017Section 1: The PresidencyTerms of office & Salary:Four-year term and may be elected to a second termPrecedent of 2 terms set by Washington, broken by F. Roosevelt22nd Amendment sets a two- term limitSalary of $400,000 per year, $50,000 nontaxable allowance, and an allowance for travel costs.- 4 termsToday, the President is limited to two four-year terms, but until the 22nd Amendment to the Constitution, ratified in 1951, a President could serve an unlimited number of terms.The Twenty-second Amendment, adopted in 1951, prohibits anyone from ever being elected to the presidency for a third full term. It also prohibits a person from being elected to the presidency more than once if that person previously had served as president, or acting president, for more than two years of another person's term as president.43 individuals have served 44 presidencies (Cleveland's two non-consecutive terms each counted) spanning 56 full four-year terms.Since the amendment's adoption, four presidents have served two full terms: Dwight D. Eisenhower, Ronald Reagan, Bill Clinton, and George W. Bush. Barack Obama has been elected to a second term.Lyndon B. Johnson was the only president under the amendment to be eligible to serve more than two terms in total, having served for only fourteen months following John F. Kennedy's assassination. However, Johnson withdrew from the 1968 Democratic Primary, surprising many Americans.Since 2001, the president has earned a $400,000 annual salary, along with a $50,000 annual expense account, a $100,000 nontaxable travel account, and $19,000 for entertainmentThe White House in Washington, D.C., serves as the official place of residence for the president; he is entitled to use its staff and facilities, including medical care, recreation, housekeeping, and security services.The government pays for state dinners and other official functions, but the president pays for dry cleaning and food that he, his family, and personal guests consumeChapter 6
7 Duties and terms of office of the vice president: American Civics4/20/2017Section 1: The PresidencyDuties and terms of office of the vice president:Takes over if the president dies, resigns, or is removed from officePresides over the SenateMust meet the same constitutional qualifications as the presidentSalary of $186,300 per year plus $10,000 taxable allowance1 William Henry Harrison 2 Zachary Taylor 3 Abraham Lincoln 4 James A. Garfield 5 William McKinley 6 Warren G. Harding 7 Franklin D. Roosevelt 8 John F. KennedyChapter 6
8 preside over the Senate, succeed the president nine
9 The order of presidential succession: Section 1: The Presidency20th AmendmentThe order of presidential succession:Term for the order in which the office of the president is to be filled if it becomes vacantThe vice presidentThe Speaker of the HouseThe president pro tempore of the SenateMembers of the president’s cabinet in the order in which their departments were created22.214.171.124.
11 Twenty-fifth Amendment American Civics4/20/2017Twenty-fifth AmendmentIf the president dies or resigns and is succeeded by the vice presidentthe new president nominates a new vice presidentThat nomination must be approved by a majority vote of both houses of CongressChapter 6
13 A new president’s vice presidential nomination must be approved by a Gave Congress the power to set the order of presidental succession. If both the president and vice president die or are removed from office, the Speaker of the House becomes president, then the president pro tempore of the Senate, followed by the president’s cabinet in the order the departments were created.A new president’s vice presidentialnomination must be approved by amajority of Congress.
14 Vice President SECTION 1 Question: What are the term of office and the duties of the vice president?Vice PresidentTerm of OfficeDuties preside over the Senate remain prepared to assume presidency help presidential candidate get electedfour years four years
15 Section 2: Powers and Roles of the President The Main IdeaThe powers and roles of the U.S. president affect not only the citizens of the United States but also people throughout the world.Reading FocusWhat are some of the leadership roles of the president?What powers does the president have?
16 The President and the Legislative Process Section 2: Powers and Roles of the PresidentThe President and the Legislative ProcessSuggests new programs & policiesRecommends laws to Congress in speeches, writing, or through State of the Union AddressSends Congress an economic messageInfluences legislation with veto powerBudgetThe threat of a veto can discourage Congress from passing a bill
17 proposes laws delivers the State of the Union address sends a budget proposal to Congresspower to veto bills
18 Congress and the Commander in Chief American Civics4/20/2017Section 2: Powers and Roles of the PresidentCongress and the Commander in ChiefCommanding the nation’sarmed forcesAll Military officers ultimately answer to the presidentConstant contact with U.S. military leadersFinal say in planning how a war is to be foughtOnly Congress can declare war.The president has the power to send troops into foreign lands.1973—War Powers Act: requires troops to be recalled within 60 days unless approved by Congress to stay longerabroadWho makes decisions about going to war - Congress or the President? Or both? The War Powers Resolution of 1973 was an attempt to clear the question up, but it only succeeded in making a gray area even more ambiguous.The War Powers Act of 1973 was approved by Congress over President Richard Nixon’s vetoThe law limits the authority of the President to sent troops without Congressional approval into combatSince 1933, the United states had been in a state of declared emergency.Past Presidents had the power to declare emergency statusmost of the war powers issued before the War Powers Act of 1973 were drafted without congressional review or oversight.The War Powers Resolution of 1973 (50 U.S.C. 1541–1548) is a federal law intended to check the president's power to commit the United States to an armed conflict without the consent of Congress.Congressional limitation on the president’s military powersChapter 6
19 head of U.S. armed forcessends troops where danger threatensfinal say in planning how a war is to be fought
20 The Main Idea Reading Focus American Civics4/20/2017Section 2: Powers and Roles of the PresidentThe Main IdeaThe powers and roles of the U.S. president affect not only the citizens of the United States but also people throughout the world.Reading FocusWhat are some of the leadership roles of the president?What powers does the president have?A pardon is the forgiveness of a crime and the cancellation of the relevant penalty; it is usually granted by a head of state (such as a monarch or president) or by acts of a parliament or a religious authority. Clemency, a policy made famous over the whole of the Roman Empire by Julius Caesar, means the forgiveness of a crime or the cancellation (in whole or in part) of the penalty associated with it. It is a general concept that encompasses several related procedures: pardoning, commutation, remission and reprieves. Commutation or remission is the lessening of a penalty without forgiveness for the crime; the beneficiary is still considered guilty of the offense. A reprieve is the postponement of punishment, often with a view to a pardon or other review of the sentence (such as when the reprieving authority has no power to grant an immediate pardon).Today, pardons are granted in many countries when individuals have demonstrated that they have fulfilled their debt to society, or are otherwise considered to be deserving. Pardons are sometimes offered to persons who are wrongfully convicted or who claim they have been wrongfully convicted. In some jurisdictions, accepting such a pardon implicitly constitutes an admission of guilt (see Burdick v. United States in the United States), so in some cases the offer is refused. Cases of wrongful conviction are nowadays more often dealt with by appeal than by pardon; however, a pardon is sometimes offered when innocence is undisputed to avoid the costs of a retrial. Clemency plays a very important role when capital punishment is applied.Chapter 6
21 President’s duties as foreign-policy leader and chief of state: American Civics4/20/2017Section 2: Powers and Roles of the PresidentPresident’s duties as foreign-policy leader and chief of state:A nation’s plan for dealing with other nations of the worldAppoints officials to represent the United States abroadTravels to foreign nations to meet with leaders and representatives of other countriesServes as the nation’s chief diplomat and assumes final responsibility for treatiesSenate must approve all treaties by a 2/3rds voteWritten agreements between nationsChapter 6
22 More Presidential Power American Civics4/20/2017More Presidential PowerAppoint Supreme Court justices & other federal judgesConfirmed by majority vote in SenateReprieves, pardons, & commutationFor certain federal crimesReprieve- postpones the carrying out of a person’s sentencePardon- Forgives a for the crime and eliminates the punishmentCommutation– reducing a person’s sentence(approved)(Prison)Presidents have the power to grant clemency in one or more of the following ways: the ability to grant a full pardon, to commute a sentence, or to rescind a fine. U.S. Presidents have no power to grant clemency for crimes prosecuted under state law.As to the difference between a pardon and a commutation:A pardon is an executive order vacating a conviction.A commutation is the mitigation of the sentence of someone currently serving a sentence for a crime pursuant to a conviction, without vacating the conviction itself.Approximately 20,000 pardons and clemencies were issued by U.S. presidents in the 20th century alone. The records of acts of clemency were public until In 1981 the Office of the Pardon Attorney was created and records from President George H. W. Bush forward are now listed. This list includes pardons and commutations.In the United States, the pardon power for federal crimes is granted to the President of the United States under Article II, Section 2 of the United States Constitution which states that the President "shall have power to grant reprieves and pardons for offenses against the United States, except in cases of impeachment". The U.S. Supreme Court has interpreted this language to include the power to grant pardons, conditional pardons, commutations of sentence, conditional commutations of sentence, remissions of fines and forfeitures, respites, and amnesties.All federal pardon petitions are addressed to the President, who grants or denies the request. Typically, applications for pardons are referred for review and non-binding recommendation by the Office of the Pardon Attorney, an official of the United States Department of Justice. The percentage of pardons and reprieves granted varies from administration to administration, however fewer pardons have been granted since World War II.Many pardons have been controversialA presidential pardon may be granted at any time, however, and as when Ford pardoned Nixon, the pardoned person need not yet have been convicted or even formally charged with a crime.Change a convicted person’s sentence to make the sentence less severeChapter 6
23 Appoints ambassadors, etc. American Civics4/20/2017head of U.S. foreign policyAppoints ambassadors, etc.makes treaties (with consent of Senate)appoints federal judgesgrants pardons, reprieves, and commutationshe shall have Power to grant Reprieves and Pardons for Offenses against the United States, except in Cases of Impeachment.The Justice Department requires that anyone requesting a pardon wait five years after conviction or release prior to receiving a pardon. A presidential pardon may be granted at any time, however, and as when Ford pardoned Nixon, the pardoned person need not yet have been convicted or even formally charged with a crimethe Office of the Pardon Attorney will consider only petitions from persons who have completed their sentences and, in addition, have demonstrated their ability to lead a responsible and productive life for a significant period after conviction or release from confinement.The pardon power of the President extends only to offenses recognizable under federal law. However, the governors of most of the 50 states have the power to grant pardons or reprieves for offenses under state criminal law.Amnesty: A pardon applied to a group of people rather than an individual. President Jimmy Carter offered amnesty to anyone who had evaded the draft. Weapon amnesties are often granted so that people can hand in weapons to the police without any legal questions being asked as to where they obtained them/why they had them/etc... After a civil war a mass amnesty may be granted to absolve all participants of guilt and "move on".Commutation: Substituting the penalty for a crime with the penalty for another, whilst still remaining guilty of the original crime (e.g., in the USA, someone who is guilty of murder may have their sentence commuted to life imprisonment rather than death)Remission: Complete or partial cancellation of the penalty, whilst still being considered guilty of said crime (i.e., reduced penalty).Reprieve: Temporary postponement of a punishment, usually so that the accused can mount an appeal (especially if he or she has been sentenced to death)Clemency: Catch-all term for all of the above, or just referring to amnesty and pardons.Expungement: Process by which record of criminal conviction is destroyed or sealed from the official repository thus removing any traces of guilt or conviction.Immunity from prosecution: A prosecutor may grant immunity, usually to a witness, in exchange for testimony or production of other evidence. The prosecutor conditionally agrees not to prosecute a crime that the witness might have committed in exchange for said evidence. e.g. If a car thief witnesses a murder, he will often be granted immunity for his crime in order to allow him to testify against the murderer.Other immunity: Several other types of immunity are available depending on the status of a person as a member of the government.Some criminals who testify for the prosecution put their life in jeopardy by doing so. To encourage witnesses to testify, the government may offer witness protection. In the United States Federal Witness Protection Program, about "95% of [witnesses in the program] are ... criminals." Those who testify for the prosecution may be offered immunity from prosecution for their own crimes.Chapter 6
24 American Civics4/20/2017SECTION 2Question: What are the duties of the president as foreign-policy leader and chief of state?President’s Duties as Foreign Policy Leader and Chief of State secure friendly relations with foreign governments preserve the security of the United States appoint officials to represent the United States inforeign countries meet with leaders of foreign countries travel abroad to meet with foreign leaders assume responsibility for treaties with foreigncountriesChapter 6
25 Section 3: Executive Departments and the Cabinet American Civics4/20/2017Section 3: Executive Departments and the CabinetThe Main IdeaThe executive branch of the U.S. government is divided into several departments, each of which has certain duties.Reading FocusWhat is the Executive Office of the President, and what is the cabinet?What are the purposes of the Department of State and the Department of Defense?What are the other executive departments in the federal government?Every day, the President of the United States is faced with scores of decisions, each with important consequences for America’s future. To provide the President with the support that he or she needs to govern effectively, the Executive Office of the President (EOP) was created in 1939 by President Franklin D. Roosevelt. The EOP has responsibility for tasks ranging from communicating the President’s message to the American people to promoting our trade interests abroad.Overseen by the White House Chief of Staff, the EOP has traditionally been home to many of the President’s closest advisors.Chapter 6
26 The Executive Office of the President American Civics4/20/2017Section 3: Executive Departments and the CabinetThe Executive Office of the PresidentContains agencies and offices that advise the president on current issuesNational Security Council– The president’s top ranking group of advisors on matters concerning defense and securityThe White House Office keeps the presidential schedule, writes speeches, and maintains relations with Congress, the press, and the public.All cabinet members are appointed by the president and approved by the SenateThe National Security Council (NSC) is the President's principal forum for considering national security and foreign policy matters with his senior national security advisors and cabinet officials.its inception under President Trumanthe Council's function has been to advise and assist the President on national security and foreign policiesCouncil also serves as the President's principal arm for coordinating these policies among various government agencies.The NSC is chaired by the PresidentIts regular attendees (both statutory and non-statutory) are the Vice President, the Secretary of State, the Secretary of the Treasury, the Secretary of Defense, and the Assistant to the President for National Security Affairs. The Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff is the statutory military advisor to the Council, and the Director of National Intelligence is the intelligence advisor. The Chief of Staff to the President, Counsel to the President, and the Assistant to the President for Economic Policy are invited to attend any NSC meeting. The Attorney General and the Director of the Office of Management and Budget are invited to attend meetings pertaining to their responsibilitiesThe heads of other executive departments and agencies, as well as other senior officials, are invited to attend meetings of the NSC when appropriate.Later in 1949, as part of the Reorganization Plan, the Council was placed in the Executive Office of the President.Chapter 6
28 The 15 executive departments work to improve life for all Americans. American CivicsDivisions of the federal gov’t. with specific areas of responsibility in helping the president carry out the laws4/20/2017Section 3: Executive Departments and the CabinetHeads ofThe 15 executive departments work to improve life for all Americans.Department of:Agriculture (USDA)Commerce (DOC)Defense (DOD)Education (ED)Energy (DOE)Health and Human Services (HHS)Homeland Security (DHS)* * newest executive departmentHousing and Urban Development (HUD)Justice (DOJ)Labor (DOL)State (DOS)Interior (DOI)TreasuryTransportation (DOT)Veterans Affairs (VA)Secretary = title of most cabinet membersAttorney GeneralThe United States Cabinet (usually referred to as "the Cabinet") is composed of the most senior appointed officers of the executive branch of the federal government. Cabinet officers are nominated by the President and confirmed or rejected by the Senate.Authority for the Cabinet rests with Article Two of the U.S. Constitution, which gives the President the authority to seek external advisors. It states that the President can require "the Opinion, in writing, of the principal Officer in each of the executive Departments, upon any Subject relating to the Duties of their respective Offices." Congress, in turn, determines the number and scope of executive Departments.A cabinet officer cannot be a member of Congress or a sitting Governor.This is why sitting Governors, Senators and members of the House of Representatives must resign before becoming a cabinet officer.The President nominates cabinet officers, who are presented to the United States Senate for confirmation or rejection on a simple majority vote. If approved, they are sworn in and begin their duties.With the exception of the Attorney General, all cabinet heads are called "Secretary." The modern cabinet includes the Vice President and the heads of 15 executive departments. In addition, five other individuals have cabinet rank.Most recently establishedChapter 6
30 American Civics4/20/2017Generally, they serve as long as the president who appointed them remains in office. Executive department secretaries answer only to the president and only the president can fire them. They are expected to resign when a new president takes office, since most incoming presidents choose to replace them, anyway.When does the Cabinet meet? There is no official schedule for Cabinet meetings, but presidents generally try to meet with their Cabinets on a weekly basis. Besides the president and department secretaries, Cabinet meetings are usually attended by the vice president, the U.S. ambassador to the United Nations, and other top-level officials as determined by the president.Chapter 6
31 American Civics4/20/2017SECTION 3Question: What are the fifteen department secretaries included in the president’s cabinet?Cabinet MembersSecretary of StateSecretary of TreasuryAttorney GeneralSecretary of the InteriorSecretary of AgricultureSecretary of CommerceSecretary of LaborSecretary of DefenseSecretary of Health and Human ServicesSecretary of Housing and UrbanDevelopmentSecretary of TransportationSecretary of EnergySecretary of EducationSecretary of Veterans AffairsSecretary of Homeland SecurityThe Secretary of State is the highest ranking cabinet official; this Secretary is fourth in succession to the Presidency. Cabinet officers are titular heads of the permanent executive agencies of the government:The Presidential Cabinet dates to the first American President, George Washington . He appointed a Cabinet of four people: Secretary of State, Thomas Jefferson ; Secretary of the Treasury, Alexander Hamilton ; Secretary of War, Henry Knox ; and Attorney General, Edmund Randolph. Even today, the big four -- Secretary of State, Secretary of the Treasury, Secretary of Defense and Attorney General -- are the most important members of the President's Cabinet.President Franklin Roosevelt acted more through the Executive Office of the President or the National Security Council than the did through the Cabinet. The power of the non-cabinet officers is evident in having additional "cabinet rank" staff, which includes the Vice President, the White House Chief of Staff, the heads of Environmental Protection Agency , Office of Management and Budget , Office of National Drug Control Policy, and the U.S. Trade Representative. it is common practice not to have the entire Cabinet in one location, even for ceremonial occasions like the State of the Union Address . This person is the designated survivor, and they are held at a secure, undisclosed location, ready to take over if the President, Vice President, and the rest of the Cabinet are killed.Cabinet-level officers are currently paid $201,700 per year.Chapter 6
33 Departments of StateMaintains U.S. relations with the rest of the worldForeign PolicySecretary of State heads itAmbassadors--are the highest-ranking U.S. representatives in foreign countriesEmbassy--official residence and offices of an ambassador in a foreign countryConsul--represents U.S. commercial interests in foreign countriesConsulate--U.S. consul’s officeAbroadDevelop trade & help Americans
34 Department of State Cont. keeps track of people traveling to and from the United StatesPassports--are formal documents that allow U.S. citizens to travel abroadVisas--allow foreigners to come to the United States.issuesA person from another nation
35 Department of DefenseIn charge of the nation’s armed forces and operates hundreds of military bases in the United States and in other nationsmilitary action & relief effortsThe secretary of defense is always a civiliannonmilitary control over the armed forcesmilitary officers as assistantsJoint Chiefs of Staff-- highest-ranking military officers of each of the armed forcesadvises the president on military affairs
37 Section 3: Executive Departments and the Cabinet American Civics4/20/2017Section 3: Executive Departments and the CabinetThe Main IdeaThe executive branch of the U.S. government is divided into several departments, each of which has certain duties.Reading FocusWhat is the Executive Office of the President, and what is the cabinet?What are the purposes of the Department of State and the Department of Defense?What are the other executive departments in the federal government?Every day, the President of the United States is faced with scores of decisions, each with important consequences for America’s future. To provide the President with the support that he or she needs to govern effectively, the Executive Office of the President (EOP) was created in 1939 by President Franklin D. Roosevelt. The EOP has responsibility for tasks ranging from communicating the President’s message to the American people to promoting our trade interests abroad.Overseen by the White House Chief of Staff, the EOP has traditionally been home to many of the President’s closest advisors.Chapter 6
38 Other Executive Departments Congress has the power to reorganize and combine different executive departments as neededCongress can also create new departments if necessaryDepartment of Homeland SecurityAfter 9/11primary mission is to protect the nation against further terrorist attacksprovides federal assistance when natural disasters occur in the United StatesEstablishOr eliminate
39 Other Executive Departments Cont. Treasury Departmentpromotes conditions for economic prosperity and stability in the United States and in the rest of the worldManaging federal financescollecting taxes, duties and monies paid to and due to the governmentproducing postage stamps, currency and coinageinvestigating and prosecuting tax evaders, counterfeiters, and forgers
40 Other Executive Departments Cont. Department of Justicethe job of enforcing the laws of the United Statesensure public safety against foreign and domestic threatsworks to prevent and control crimecommitted to ensuring the fair and impartial administration of justice for all Americans
41 TFFpromotes conditions for economic prosperity and stabilityDepartment of Homeland Security
42 The Main Idea Reading Focus Section 4: Independent Agencies and Regulatory CommissionsThe Main IdeaThe Independent Agencies and Regulatory Commissions of the U.S. government perform specialized duties.Reading FocusWhat are some examples of independent agencies, and what duties do they perform?What are regulatory commissions, and who runs them?What makes up the federal bureaucracy?
43 Section 4: Independent Agencies and Regulatory Commissions Perform specialized duties that do not fit into regular departmentsSome serve all of the departments and some assist the work of the entire government.Examples:U.S. Commission on Civil Rights-collects information about discrimination against minoritiesNational Aeronautics and Space Administration-runs the U.S. space programThe Office of Personnel Management-gives tests to people who want to apply for jobs with the federal governmentGeneral Services Administration-buys supplies for the federal government
44 provides information on discrimination runs space programtests federal job applicantsbuys supplies for federal governmentCongress
45 Regulatory Commissions American Civics4/20/2017Section 4: Independent Agencies and Regulatory CommissionsRegulatory CommissionsHave the force of lawsPowerfulEstablishIndependent agencies make rules and bring violators to court.Usually established because of a perceived needCommission heads are appointed by the president and approved by Congress to serve long terms.Commissions are independent in order to freely do their jobs.Enforce rulesIndependent agencies of the United States federal government are those agencies that exist outside of the federal executive departments (those headed by a Cabinet secretary). More specifically, the term may be used to describe agencies that, while constitutionally part of the executive branch, are independent of presidential control, usually because the president's power to dismiss the agency head or a member is limited.Established through separate statutes passed by the Congress, each respective statutory grant of authority defines the goals the agency must work towards, as well as what substantive areas, if any, over which it may have the power of rulemaking. These agency rules (or regulations), when in force, have the power of federal law.of the executive departmentsChapter 6
46 Regulatory Commissions (continued) American Civics4/20/2017Section 4: Independent Agencies and Regulatory CommissionsRegulatory Commissions (continued)Examples:Federal Election Commissionenforces election laws, provides financial information for campaigns, & controls public funding of presidential electionsConsumer Product Safety CommissionIt sets and enforces safety standards for consumer products and conducts safety researchSecurities and Exchange Commissionregulates the buying and selling of stocks and bondsNational Labor Relations BoardEnforces federal labor laws and works to prevent unfair labor practices among businesses.While most executive agencies have a single director, administrator, or secretary appointed by the President of the United States, independent agencies (in the narrower sense of being outside presidential control) almost always have a commission, board, or similar collegial body consisting of five to seven members who share power over the agency. (This is why many independent agencies include the word "Commission" or "Board" in their name.) The President appoints the commissioners or board members, subject to Senate confirmation, but they often serve with staggered terms, and often for longer terms than a usual four-year Presidential term, meaning most Presidents will not have the opportunity to appoint all the commissioners of a given independent agency. Normally the President can designate which Commissioner will serve as the Chairperson. Normally there are statutory provisions limiting the President's authority to remove commissioners, typically for incapacity, neglect of duty, malfeasance, or other good cause. In addition, most independent agencies have a statutory requirement of bipartisan membership on the commission, so the President cannot simply fill vacancies with members of his own political party.Chapter 6
47 enforces election laws makes safety laws and standardsregulates stock marketenforces federal labor lawsregulatory commissionspresidentSenate
48 The Main Idea Reading Focus Section 4: Independent Agencies and Regulatory CommissionsThe Main IdeaThe Independent Agencies and Regulatory Commissions of the U.S. government perform specialized duties.Reading FocusWhat are some examples of independent agencies, and what duties do they perform?What are regulatory commissions, and who runs them?What makes up the federal bureaucracy?
49 The Federal Bureaucracy American Civics4/20/2017Section 4: Independent Agencies and Regulatory CommissionsThe Federal BureaucracyFormed by the departments and agencies of the executive branchAlmost 3 million workersOperates under heavy rules and regulations that create “red tape” but allow the executive branch to functionbu·reauc·ra·cynouna system of government in which most of the important decisions are made by state officials rather than by elected representatives.is "a body of non-elective government officials" and/or "an administrative policy-making group". Historically, bureaucracy was government administration managed by departments staffed with nonelected officials. Today, bureaucracy is the administrative system governing any large institution.negative connotationsBureaucracies have been criticized as being too complex, inefficient, or too inflexible.that bureaucracy constitutes the most efficient and rational way in which one can organize human activity, and that systematic processes and organized hierarchies were necessary to maintain order, maximize efficiency and eliminate favoritism.French word bureau – desk or office – with the Greek word κράτος kratos – rule or political power.refer to a system of public administration in which offices were held by unelected career officials, and in this sense "bureaucracy" was seen as a distinct form of managementany system of administration conducted by trained professionals according to fixed rules.in the modern world practically all organized institutions rely on bureaucratic systems to manage information, process and manage records, and administer complex systems and interrelationships in an increasingly globalized world, although the decline of paperwork and the widespread use of electronic databases is transforming the way bureaucracies function.Chapter 6
51 Commission on Civil Rights Farm Credit Administration American Civics4/20/2017SECTION 4Question: What are some of the independent agencies and regulatory commissions of the federal government?Independent AgenciesCommission on Civil RightsFarm Credit AdministrationRegulatory CommissionsFederal Election CommissionConsumer Product Safety CommissionSecurities and Exchange CommissionNational Labor Relations BoardNational Aeronautics and Space AdministrationSmall Business AdministrationOffice of Personnel ManagementGeneral Services AdministrationChapter 6
52 Chapter 6 Wrap-Up1. What is the vice president’s role in the government?2. What limitation did the Twenty-second Amendment place on the terms of the presidency?3. What is the purpose of the State of the Union Address?4. How does the president participate in the legislative process?5. How does the Executive Office of the President serve the president?6. What other position do the executive department heads hold?7. Why are the independent agencies separate from the executive departments?