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Presentation on theme: "CHAPTER 11 SELF AND PERSONALITY"— Presentation transcript:


2 Personality An organized combination of attributes, motives, values, and behaviors Patterns of traits Unique to each individual Consistent across situations and time Self-Concept: Perceptions Self Esteem: Evaluation Identity: Overall sense of who you are

3 McAdams and Pals (2006) Five Principles
Personality shaped by evolution for adaptation to environment People differ in dispositional traits People differ in characteristic adaptations Each has a unique life story Cultural and situational influences ever present

4 Psychoanalytic Theory: Sigmund Freud
Three parts of the personality Selfish Id; Rational Ego; Moralist Superego Stages of psychosexual development Biological: ends at sexual maturity Personality formed in first 5 years Childhood anxieties become adult traits

5 Psychoanalytic Theory: Erik Erikson
Emphasized Social influences Rational ego Life-span development Crisis-Oriented Stages Result From: Maturational forces Social demands


7 Trait Theory Psychometric Approach Personality: a set of traits
Individual differences in each trait Measurement approach “Big Five” - Universal and stable Evidence of genetic basis Universal


9 Social Learning Theory
Personality: A set of behavior tendencies Shaped by interactions Found in specific social situations No universal stages Not enduring traits People change as environment changes Situational influences important E.g., cheating


11 Infancy:The Emerging Self
First 6 months: Discover physical self Joint attention at about 9 mo Difference in perceptions can be shared Self-recognition about 18 months Categorical self (age, sex): 18 – 24 months Based on cognitive development Requires Social Experience The looking-glass self: a “reflection”


13 Temperament Seen in infancy Genetically based
Tendencies to respond in predictable ways Building blocks of personality Goodness of Fit (Thomas & Chess) Parenting techniques Learning to interpret cues Sensitive responding

14 Changes in Self-Concept: age 8
Include psychological, social qualities Previously used only physical traits Increased Use of: Social comparison, multidimensionality Hierarchy with self-worth on top More accurate self evaluations Widening gap between ideal-self and real-self

15 Contributions to Higher Self-Esteem
Competence! Positive social feedback Warm democratic parents Social comparisons that are positive Some temperament traits established Will develop into adult traits

16 The Adolescent Increased awareness of psychological and abstract traits Self-concept more integrated Self-esteem dips temporarily, rebounds Erikson’s Stage of Identity vs. Role Confusion “Who Am I?” Can last as long as into early 30s

17 Marcia’s Ego Identity Statuses
Diffusion: “Hey wait a minute – they didn’t know everything. Maybe I’m not who they said I was.” (No crisis. No commitment) Foreclosure: “I’ll be a (Catholic, Democrat, doctor, etc.) because that’s what they told me was right.” (Commitment without crisis) Moratorium: “Who am I? What is right? Who will I become?” (Crisis, no commitment) Identity Achieved: “I can make my own life choices.” (Commitment, evolved from crisis)

18 The Four Identity Statuses as They Apply to Religious Identity

19 Identity Achievement Ethnic Identity begins in infancy
Vocational Identity - increasingly realistic “Goodness of fit” becomes useful Influential Factors Cognitive development Openness to experience trait Warm, democratic parenting Culture that encourages exploration

20 Self-Concept and Adulthood
Stable Self-Esteem Generally good Ability to adjust ideal to real self Evaluate self with different standards Comparisons with age-mates Related to stable personality traits Losses in self-esteem in later old age

21 Changes in Personality
Cross-sectional studies show more changes Longitudinal, Cross-Cultural Studies Adulthood: achievement and confidence Older adults Decrease: activity level, openness to experience Increase: introversion, emotional stability, conscientiousness

22 Influences on Personality Change
Heredity Earlier experiences Stability of environment Biological factors (e.g., disease) Poor person-environment fit

23 Adulthood – Erikson and Research
Identity provides for intimacy in young adulthood More traditional women solve identity crisis after intimacy (marriage, children) Midlife generativity supported “Midlife crisis” not supported Integrity in old age supported Includes life review Life Stories: narrative identity approach

24 Vocational Development
Young adults: Career exploration Thirties: Settling down Forties & Fifties: Career peaks Older Workers Competent, satisfied, and positive Selective optimization with compensation

25 Retirement Average age 63 Adjustment phases Success Factors:
Person-environment fit Selective optimization with compensation Disengagement versus Activity Theory Support for activity theory


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