Presentation on theme: "APA S TYLE : P UBLICATION M ANUAL OF THE A MERICAN P SYCHOLOGICAL A SSOCIATION SW 2220: Human Behavior and the Social Environment."— Presentation transcript:
APA S TYLE : P UBLICATION M ANUAL OF THE A MERICAN P SYCHOLOGICAL A SSOCIATION SW 2220: Human Behavior and the Social Environment
W HY WE USE APA? Used in the Human Sciences/Social Sciences Set standards of scientific communication Increase ease of reading and comprehension Find key points and findings quickly
F ORMATTING Margins :1 inch top, bottom, & sides Double-space Font : Times New Roman, 12 point size Page numbers : begin with title page Upper right corner (1 inch margin) 5 spaces between header & page number Paragraphs : 3-5 sentences
F ORMATTING References : presented in hanging indent style Alphabetized No numbering Double-spaced Numbers : spell out from one to nine 10 and above should be in Arabic symbols Use the symbol % when attached to a number Use scientific journals for referencing
P LAGIARISM Comes from the Latin word for “kidnap”; it’s essentially using other people’s ideas without acknowledging the original source. Paraphrasing : put the ideas you have read into your own words and then cite source.
T ITLE P AGE Running head: SHORTENED TITLE Top-most left hand corner Centered The Rest of the Title Your Name School of Social Work University of Missouri-Columbia Date due
H EADINGS Level One Heading Level Three Heading Level four heading. Text begins…
F IRST PAGE OF W RITTEN T EXT Include full title from title page Level One Heading [Indent]Begin your writing
R EFERENCE : I N -T EXT C ITATIONS One author: Jones (2010) stated that… In a study comparing… were compared (Jones, 2010). Two authors Jones and Williams (2010) state that… In a study comparing…were compared (Jones & Williams, 2010).
3 or more authors: Jones, Williams and Smith (2010) state that… First time reference is used Jones et al. (2010) state that… In a study comparing…were compared (Jones et al., 2010) Subsequent references to the same work
Direct quotations (one sentence): He stated, “when culture…which explains a person’s development” (Jones, 2010. p. 210). More than 40 words: Start quotation on new line Indent 5 or 7 spaces No quotation marks Double spaced Place citation following the punctuation at the end of the quotation.
Example: Research has shown that the following is true: Students often had difficulty using APA style, especially when it was their first time citing sources. This difficulty could be attributed…using Writing Lab (Jones, 2010, p. 213).
More than one reference within the citation: Once the process is understood…more will be gained (Kaka, 2010; Eto’o, 2009).
R EFERENCE AT E ND OF P APER Book by one author: Jones, T. (2010). The exciting life. Columbia: The Citizen, Inc. Book by two authors: Jones, T. & Williams, J. (2010). The cow that jumped over the moon. Columbia: The Citizen, Inc. Edited book: Jones, T & Leo, S.H. (Eds.) (2006). The door that closes slowly. Columbia: The Citizen, Inc.
Article from an Academic Journal: Smith, P. (2001). Cultural, family, and personal contexts of parent-adolescent conflict. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 41 (3), 375-386. Internet Publication: A healthy start for millions more children. (2010, March). Retrieved March 8, 2010, from http://www.childrensdefensefund.org. http://www.childrensdefensefund.org
An article or chapter in a collection of pieces by several authors (anthology): O’Connor, M.F. (1975). Everything that rises must converge. In J.R. Knott & C.R. Raeske (Eds.), Mirrors: An introduction to literature (pp. 58-67). San Francisco: Canfield.
A F EW TIPS Give yourself enough time to do the job well Take notes to document the book or article plus page numbers Keep your writing in 3 rd person ( he, she, it, they ) unless asked for opinion Avoid 2 nd person (you ) Do not use contractions ( don’t, didn’t, etc )
Punctuation for Latin abbreviation: i.e., (meaning that is ) e.g., (meaning for example ) et al. (meaning and all the others ) When using acronyms, write out the entire name of the organization first time followed by parentheses with the initials inside United Nations (U.N.) Every subsequent time, use the initials