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Chapter 3 Migration. Key Terms  Mobility: movements from one place to another  Migration: permanent move to a new location  Emigration: migration from.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 3 Migration. Key Terms  Mobility: movements from one place to another  Migration: permanent move to a new location  Emigration: migration from."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 3 Migration

2 Key Terms  Mobility: movements from one place to another  Migration: permanent move to a new location  Emigration: migration from a location  Immigration: migration to a location  Net Migration: difference between number of immigrants & emigrants  Positive Net Migration: more immigrants than emigrants

3 Key Terms in Temporary Mobility  Circulation: short-term, repetitive, cyclical movements that recur on regular basis. Ex: driving to work everyday, rec activities, church, etc  Seasonal Mobility: temporarily moving to location for season. Ex: college students, ice road truckers

4  Migration disrupts traditional culture & economic patterns in a region  New languages, religion, ethnicity, cultural traits, economic practices, etc  Modern transportation makes relocation diffusion easier

5 Key Issue 1 Why do people migrate?  Reasons for migrating  Distance of migration  Characteristics of migrants

6 Reasons for Migrating  People migrate because PUSH and PULL factors  Push Factors: induces people to move out of location  Pull Factors: induce people to move into a new location  Three major push & pull factors:  1) economic 2) cultural 3) environmental

7 Economic Push & Pull Factors  Most people move for economic reasons  Job opportunities  Read p.82 Case Study  Migrating from Ukraine to Italy  Country with valuable natural resources will attract miners & engineers ex: petroleum  New Industry may attract factory workers technicians, scientists

8 Economic Push & Pull Factors  United States & Canada  Popular destination  Economic advancement opportunities for Europeans in 19 th century  Current pull factors for Latin Americans & Asians  Scotland & Ireland  Recent immigration after discovery of petroleum

9 Cultural Push and Pull Factors  PUSH factors  Slavery & Political Instability  Forced migration from Africa to Western Hemisphere, slavery  Boundary changes of newly independent states  Cultural tension of mixed ethnicities

10  Refugees: people who have been forced to migrate from their homes & cannot return for fear of persecution because of race, religion, nationality, membership in a social group, or political opinion

11 Cultural Push Factors  2 largest groups of international refugees are Palestinians and Afghans  Palestinian Refugees: left Israel after creation of country in 1948  Afghans: left because of civil war

12 Cultural Push Factors  2 largest groups of internal refugees are Sudan and Colombia  Sudan: civil war, religious & cultural disputes  Colombia: gov’t battles with drug lords & guerillas  Other countries: Congo, Iraq and Uganda

13 Cultural Pull Factors  Democratic Countries  Individual choice in education, career & residence  Western Europe, North America  Pulled residents from communism, 1940s  Berlin Wall

14 Environmental Push & Pull  Pulled toward attractive regions  Mountains, seasides, warm climate  Rocky Mountains, Alps, Mediterranean, Florida  Arizona: dry desert climate was good for allergies, 1940s  Pushed from hazardous regions

15 Environmental Push & Pull  Water Threats: too much or too little  Hurricanes & Flooding: New Orleans  Droughts: Sahel region of Africa, Dust Bowl (Oklahoma)

16 Intervening Obstacles  Migrants can’t always reach desired location because of intervening obstacles  Physical: Bodies of water, mountains, deserts  Modern transportation has eliminated most physical obstacles  Current obstacles: government & politics  Passport Visa

17 Distance of Migration  Ravenstein’s Theory:  Most migrants relocate a short distance and remain within the same country  Long-distance migrants to other countries head for major centers of economic activity

18 Internal Migration  International Migration: permanent movement from one country to another  Internal Migration: permanent movement within same country  Distance-Decay Principle: the farther away a place is located, the less likely that people will migrate to it

19 Internal Migration  Two Types: Voluntary & Forced  Voluntary: migrant has chosen to move  Economic push & pull  Forced: migrant has been compelled to moved  Cultural factors

20 Migration Transition  A change in the migration pattern in a society that results from the social and economic changes that also produce the demographic transition

21 Migration Transition  Stage 2: International & interregional migration  NIR goes up because decline in CDR  Technological Advances  Improvement in agriculture: move away from rural areas  Factories: move towards urban areas

22 Migration Transition  Stage 3 & 4: internal migration  CBR declines  Move from cities to suburbs

23 Characteristics of Migrants  Ravenstein’s Theory  Most long-distance migrants are male  Most long-distance migrants are adult individuals rather than families with children

24 Gender of Migrants  19 th & 20 th centuries  55% US immigrants were male, more likely to be employed  1990s  55% US immigrants are female  Changing roles of women

25 Family Status of Migrants  Ravenstein’s Theory  Most long-distance migrants are young adults  US immigration  40% between ages of 25 & 49  Increasing amounts of children, 16% children

26 US: Mexican immigrants  Mexico, Stage 2  Most immigrants from rural areas  Immigrate to bordering states: California, Texas  Most from interior states, not northern border (contradicts distance-decay theory)  Most work in agriculture, factories

27 US: Mexican immigrants  Economic Reasons: better jobs  Why hire them?  Lower wages  Not required benefits  Can be threatened with deportation  Seasonal employees: agriculture  Money sent back home to Mexico

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