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The Holocaust Chapter 16, Section 3
Holocaust Begins Nazi propaganda started an anti-Semitic campaign
He used Europe’s long hatred of Jews Jews were blamed for many problems that afflicted Europe over it’s history Hitler blamed the Jews for the loss of WWI 1933 – Jews cannot hold public jobs 1935 – the Nuremberg Laws
Nuremberg Laws Deprive Jews their rights as citizens
They placed restrictions on their businesses And took property away Jews also had to wear the star of David on their clothing (made it easier to identify them)
Kristallnacht: “Night of Broken Glass”
November 1938 Nazi leaders attacked Jewish homes, businesses and synagogues across Germany and killed 100 Jews Because Nazi literally smashed windows of above mentioned it took on the name “Night of Broken Glass”
The Flood of Refugees Jews knew that violence against them would only increase Many fled to other countries Hitler encouraged the emigration as the solution to the “Jewish problem” Two problems: Countries no longer wanted Jewish emigrants Germany will control the countries they fled to
Isolating the Jews Hitler could not “get rid” of the Jews via emigration so… He moved Jews from German territories to cities in Poland They are herded into terrible areas Overcrowded, disease, lack of food, poor housing Ghettos – Segregated Jewish Areas
Hitler’s “Final Solution”
Hitler wanted the Jews gone He tried to force them out, then starve them out “Final Solution” – The genocide of the Jews Genocide – systematic killing of an entire people To keep the German people “pure” they needed to eliminate undesirable groups Gypsies, Poles, Russians, homosexuals, the mentally deficient, physically impaired, Jews and incurably ill
The Mass Killings Begin
After Poland in ‘39 it was still unclear that Hitler meant to kill the Jews As the Nazis took over Europe they hunted down Jews and other undesirables Many of the Jews they found (by SS killing squads) would be shot and buried in mass graves The rest are rounded up and taken to camps
The Camps Two types: Concentration Labor Both had terrible conditions meant to kill the Jews via – grueling work, poor food, conditions, etc… Worked 7 days a week, guards would beat them to death for not working fast enough, little to no food was given to them
The Final Stage: Mass Extermination
“Final Solution” officially hit its final stage in early ‘42 They built extermination camps with gas chambers for mass death They built 6 in Poland – Chelmno was the first and opened in late ‘41 The gas chambers could kill up to 6,000 people at once
Auschwitz The largest death camp
When they arrived an SS doctor would separate the weak from strong The weak were killed immediately They were told they were going to take a shower, lead and locked into a chamber that look like showers then poisons gas would pour from the shower heads Soon to deal with all the dead bodies crematoriums were added to the death camps
Survivors Six million Jews died
Fewer than 4 million European Jews survived the Holocaust
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