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XML – Extensible Markup Language Sivakumar Kuttuva & Janusz Zalewski.

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Presentation on theme: "XML – Extensible Markup Language Sivakumar Kuttuva & Janusz Zalewski."— Presentation transcript:

1 XML – Extensible Markup Language Sivakumar Kuttuva & Janusz Zalewski

2 What is XML? Extensible Markup Language (XML) is a universal standard for electronic data exchange Provides a method of creating and using tags to identify the structure and contents of a document ignoring the formatting

3 How XML look like //Root Tag Java Programming //Element Course Name EECS //Element Dept Paul Ron Uma Lindsay

4 Why XML came into existence?(1) Make it easier to provide metadata -- data about information EECS Paul Thompson Here Name, Department are Metadata Large-scale electronic publishing requires dynamic documents without changing document formats. Internationalized media-independent electronic publishing.

5 Why XML came into existence? (2) Allow industries to define platform- independent protocols for the exchange of data, especially the data of electronic commerce. Make it easy for people to process data using inexpensive software.

6 Two Types of Syntax Standards XML documents must meet one of two syntax standards: –Well-formed (the basic standard) Document must meet minimum, standard criteria. –Valid Document must be well-formed and adhere to a DTD (Document Type Definition).

7 Well-Formed XML –Well-formed criteria include: All elements have a start and end tag with matching capitalization. – Proper element nesting. – – not Attribute values are in single or double quotes. – Empty elements need an end or closed start tag. – or

8 Why Well-Formed Matters Guarantees the document’s syntax before sending it to an application. A clean syntax guarantee which means less ambiguity which results in faster processing. A well-formed violation is a fatal error.

9 Valid XML To be valid, a document must be well- formed and adhere to a DTD. A DTD Example is shown below –

10 Valid XML DTD - Document Type Definition specifies: – Elements in the document. Author, Publisher – Their attributes. For Book Author, Publisher, Price are attributes – Whether they are mandatory or optional A DTD effectively specifies the document’s grammatical rules.

11 A sample entry in the XML file adhering to the given DTD 3456-34567890-3456 C++ Primer Tendulkar McGraw Hill 41.99

12 Why use DTD Well-formed means the document meets a minimum standard set of rules. A DTD helps to define user defined rules and languages provided the XML content adheres to the syntax standards like WML, MAML, etc.

13 The Components – Line 1 Bookcatalog is the root element. Bookcatalog can have one or more (indicated by the +) Book elements.

14 The Components – Line 2 Each Book element can contain: A title, author, publisher, price

15 The Components – Line 4 <!ATTLIST Book BookType (Fiction | SciFi | Nonfiction) Fiction. Each Book element has a attribute BookType Three options (indicated by |) Fiction, SciFi and Non-Fiction with Fiction as default.

16 The Components – Lines 5-9 The Remaining Elements Title through Price are #PCDATA –Parseable character data that the processor will check for entities and markup characters –Any, or & in data specified as PCDATA must be represented by < or > or &.

17 Schemas The next step beyond DTDs Come from the database world More powerful and extensible than DTDs, which come from the SGML world Schemas are XML documents, so they: –Are extensible –Use XML syntax unlike DTDs –Support data types like dates, times, currencies, important in eCommerce

18 DTDs vs Schemas Why use schemas? –More powerful than DTDs –Better suited for eCommerce. Why use DTDs? –Wider tool support. –More examples available for use and reference. HTML, XHTML, CALS, etc. –Greater depth of experience in the industry –Wider pool of developers

19 CSS and XML CSS was designed for HTML but works fine under XML as well. Rather than create an XSL style sheet, you can create a simpler CSS and attach it to a XML document via a command like: –{?xml-stylesheet href=“mycss.css” type=“text/css”?}

20 CSS and XSL XML uses custom tags that a browser does not know how to display So XML documents may display like this – – 3456-34567890-3456 – C++ Primer – Tendulkar – McGraw Hill – 41.99 – Legibility requires applying styles: – CSS – XSL

21 XSL (Extensible Style Language) XSL comes from DSSSL (Document Style Semantics and Specification Language), the SGML style language, derived from LISP.

22 Benefits of XSL An XSL style sheet is well-formed XML. Supports a style sheet DTD for validation. Far greater processing ability than CSS. XSL Transformations (XSLT) take part of an XML document and transform it, such as XML to HTML. – This is why XML appears to be the route to single-sourcing.

23 Advanced Features of XML Xlink Xpointer Parsing XML with DOM (Document Object Model) XPath

24 XML Applications Applications that require the Web client to mediate between two or more heterogeneous databases like information tracking system for a home health care agency. Applications that attempt to distribute a significant proportion of the processing load from the Web server to the Web client like technical data delivery system for a wide range of products. Applications that require the Web client to present different views of the same data to different users. Applications in which intelligent Web agents attempt to tailor information discovery to the needs of individual users.

25 Future Demands of XML Intelligent Web agents would have demand for structured data User preferences must be represented in a standard way to mass media providers.

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