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Chapter 12 Implementation

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1 Chapter 12 Implementation

2 Learning outcomes Produce a plan to minimize the risks involved with the launch phase of an e-business application Define a process for the effective maintenance of an e-business system Produce a simple web page with links to other pages Create a plan to measure the effectiveness of an e-business application.

3 Management issues What actions can we take to minimize the risks of implementation? How do we achieve transition from previous systems to a new e-business system? What techniques are available to measure the success of our implementation?

4 System implementation issues
Acquisition techniques Site implementation tools Content management and updating System changeover Localization Evaluation and monitoring.

5 Figure 12.1 Sequencing of implementation and maintenance for the dynamic e-business application

6 Systems acquisition options
Bespoke development. The e-commerce system is developed from scratch. Off-the-shelf (packaged). An existing system is purchased from a solution vendor. In the e-business context this approach is often achieved by external hosting via an applications service provider. Tailored off-the shelf development. The off-the-shelf system is tailored according to an organization’s needs.

7 Activity – see case 12.1 CMS For purchase: Wide range of choice
Wide range of features built-in with continuous development of new features Quicker to deploy in basic form e.g. Diageo implemented 5 portal sites in six weeks Range of hosting options – internal or third party Cost lower than external for initial purchase and upgrading as Internet technology changes Generally scale better for large numbers of users.

8 Activity – see case 12.1 CMS Against purchase:
May not meet requirements for creation and updating process or display exactly Initial and ongoing costs. However modification of a open source CMS such as Zope ( may give the best balance between cost and flexibility. Such systems have been used by large organizations such as NATO.

9 Figure 12.2 An example online customer service form

10 Figure 12.3 Possible web page layout options

11 Figure 12.5 Using scripting to produce dynamic web content for form processing

12 Testing Type of testing Developer tests Feasibility testing
Description Developer tests Code level tests performed by developers of modules Feasibility testing Tests a new approach, often near the start of a project to make sure it is acceptable in terms of user experience Module (component) tests Checks individual modules have the correct functionality i.e. correct outputs are produced for specified inputs (black-box testing) Integration testing Checks interactions between groups of modules System testing Checks interactions between all modules in the system Database transaction taken Can the user connect to the database and are transactions executed correctly Performance/capacity testing Tests the speed of the system under high load Usability testing Check that the system is easy to use and follows the conventions of user-centred design described in Chapter 11 Acceptance tests Checks the system is acceptable for the party that commissioned it Content or copy testing Tests the acceptability of copy from a marketing view

13 Figure 12.6 A content update review process

14 Changeover options Method Main advantages Main disadvantages
1. Immediate cutover. Straight from old system to new system on a single date Rapid, lowest cost High risk. Major disruption if serious errors with system 2. Parallel running. Old system and new system run side-by-side for a period Lower risk than immediate cutover Slower and higher cost than immediate cutover 3. Phased implementation. Different modules of the system are introduced sequentially Good compromise between methods 1 and 2 Difficult to achieve technically due to interdependencies between modules 4. Pilot system. Trial implementation occurs before widespread deployment Essential for multinational or national rollouts Has to be used in combination with the other methods

15 Figure 12.7 Typical structures of an e-commerce site steering group

16 Management issues with maintenance
Deciding on the frequency and scope of content updating Process for managing maintenance of the site and responsibilities for updating Selection of content management system Testing and communicating changes made Integration with monitoring and measurement systems Managing content in the global organization.

17 Figure 12.8 A summary of the performance measurement process

18 Figure The five diagnostic categories for e-marketing measurement from the framework presented by Chaffey (2000)

19 Figure 12.10 Attrition through e-commerce site activities

20 Figure 12.11 Examples of different measures of visitor volume to a web site

21 Figure 12.12 Different types of data within a performance management system for Internet marketing

22 Figure Web analytics tool IndexTools used to assess page popularity in Dave Chaffey’s site (

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