Presentation on theme: "Diet and Cancer. Cancer l Cancer is the 2nd most common cause of death in the US after heart disease. l Cancer kills 1 out of every 4 Americans. l The."— Presentation transcript:
Cancer l Cancer is the 2nd most common cause of death in the US after heart disease. l Cancer kills 1 out of every 4 Americans. l The risk of developing cancer can be reduced by changes in a person’s lifestyle.
What is Cancer? l Normal body cells grow, divide and die in an orderly fashion. l Cancer cells are different because they do not die, just continue to divide and grow. l Cancer cells form as a result of damaged DNA.
What is Cancer? l These damaged genes can be passed on, which accounts for inherited cancers. l In other cases, the DNA is damaged by an outside source such as smoking. l Cancer usually forms a tumor.
What is Cancer There are two types of tumors: Malignant and Benign l Malignant tumors spread to other areas in the body. These are the dangerous ones. l Benign tumors stay in one place.
Types of Cancer l Sarcoma-rise from connective tissue such as muscle or bone and are more common in younger people. l Carcinomas-which occur in epithelial tissue and are more common in older people. It includes lung, breast, prostate, and colon.
Types of Cancer l Leukemia- cancers of the blood or blood forming organs. l Lymphomas- affect the lymphatic system. The lymphatic system is a group of vessels and nodes that act as the body’s filter. It prevents bacteria and foreign invaders from entering the bloodstream.
Causes of Cancer 80% are considered sporadic- meaning the cause is unknown. There are several risk factors that increase the chance of cancer: l Age- risk increases >50. l Diet- high fat, high cholesterol diets increase risk.
Causes of Cancer l Obesity- no clear link but research indicates it is a factor l Cigarettes- increases lung cancer, other tobacco products such as pipes and chewing tobacco increase cancers of the mouth. l Long term exposure to chemicals- asbestos, radon and benzene.
Causes of Cancer l Exposure to high levels of radiation l Harmful ultraviolet rays from the sun. l Some viruses- Hepatitis B, C, HPV, Epsteinn-Barr. l Immune system diseases
Causes of Cancer l Heredity Screenings are recommended for high risk families. You are considered high risk if : Several relatives have had cancer or if someone had cancer at a very early age.
Symptoms of Cancer Remember one word: CAUTION l Changes in bowel or bladder habits. l A sore that will not heal. l Unusual bleeding or discharge l Thickening or lump in breast or any part of the body.
CAUTION l Indigestion or difficulty swallowing. l Obvious change in any wart or mole l Nagging cough or hoarseness.
Diagnosis of Cancer l Biopsy- small tissue sample under a microscope to look for cancerous cells. l Endoscopy- a flexible plastic tube with a tiny camera l Diagnostic Imaging- x rays
Diagnosis of Cancer l CAT scan- more precise than standard x-ray. l MRI- uses a powerful magnetic field, very accurate but expensive. l Blood Tests- some tumors release substances called tumor markers which can be found in the blood.
Treatment of Cancer Types of treatment: l Surgery- 60% of all cancer pts. have some kind of surgery. l Radiation Therapy l Chemotherapy l Immunotherapy
Diet and Cancer The American Cancer Society recommends 4 rules of thumb for cancer prevention: l Choose most of the foods you eat from plant sources. 5 or more servings l Limit intake of high fat foods, particularly from animal sources.
Diet and Cancer l Be physically active. l Limit alcohol intake.
Dietary Components Associated with Cancer Excesses of Certain substances such as: l Fat- the end products of metabolism have been found to be carcinogenic. l Alcohol- has been connected with liver, colorectal, and breast cancers. l Pickled and Smoked Foods- related to cancers of the esophagus and stomach. that may increase the risk.
Dietary Components Associated with Cancer l Cooking methods have also been found to have a role in cancer. Frying or charcoal-broiling meats at very high temperatures creates chemicals
Protective Dietary Components l Certain foods and nutrients have been shown to protect against certain types of cancers. l Vitamin C - has been shown to protect against cancer of stomach, esophagus, and oral cavity. l antioxidants- these are certain nutrients found in fruits and vegetables.
Protective Dietary Components l Fruits and Veggies- contain vitamins, fiber and phytochemicals. l Vitamin E and selenium- both antioxidants that protect cells against breakdown. l Calcium- Calcium reduces cell turnover rates. l Water- drinking more than 5 glasses a day has been associated with a lower risk of cancer.
Diet and Cancer l Fiber- Insoluble fiber is connected to decreased risk of colon cancer. Beans, vegetables, whole grains and fruit are good sources.
Diet and Cancer l Salt- some evidence links diets containing large amounts of foods preserved by pickling and salting to increased cancers of the stomach, nose and throat.
Diet and the Cancer Patient l Nutrition is an important part of treatment. l Eating the right kinds of food before, during and after treatment can help the patient feel better and stay stronger. l Treatments can have an affect on appetite.
Diet and the Cancer Patient l People with cancer have unique nutrition needs. l Eating enough food is usually not a problem. Treatment can have an adverse effect on appetite. l Nutrition suggestions often emphasize eating high calorie, high protein foods.
Diet and the Cancer Patient Treatments kill cancer cells but they also kill healthy cells. This can cause side effects such as: l Loss of appetite, sore mouth or throat, dry mouth, dental and gum problems, changes in taste or smell, nausea, diarrhea, constipation, fatigue and depression.
Diet and the Cancer Patient l It is very important to have good nutrition to minimize the side effects of cancer, prevent or reverse nutritional deficiencies, and to maximize the quality of life. l The best method of calorie intake is by mouth. Sometimes this is not possible.
Diet and the Cancer Patient Other options of intake are: l Feeding Tube l TPN or total parenteral nutrition- this is nutrition directly through a vein.
Stop, Look, and Listen l Be aware of your body, this is the best prevention against cancer. l Early detection can be the difference between life and death! l Here are some things to look for early detection of the most common cancers.
Stop, Look, and Listen l Breast Cancer- look for a lump, any puckering, dimpling or scaling of the breast skin. l Colorectal Cancer- blood in the stool, prolonged diarrhea, or constipation. l Endometrial Cancer- (lining of the uterus) bleeding between periods or after menopause.
Stop, Look, and Listen l Cervical Cancer-Bleeding after intercourse, or between periods l Prostate- Frequent or painful urination, blood in the urine, difficulty starting and stopping. l Testicular Cancer- a change in the consistency of the testicles, or a small hard lump that is often painless.
Stop, Look, and Listen l Oral Cancer- white or velvety red patches l Skin Cancer- Check body from head to toe, looking for new moles, or those that have suddenly increased in size, changed color, or bleed easily. l Lung cancer- chest pain, recurring bronchitis, or pneumonia
5 for the Road Five things you should remember about preventing cancer. l Eats lots of fruits, vegetables, and whole grains. l Discover the pleasure of physical activity.
5 for the Road l Stay tobacco free l Enjoy a low-fat diet l Protect yourself from the sun between 10:00 am and 4:00 pm.
Conclusion l Cancer is a preventable disease in most cases. l Lead a healthy lifestyle. l Be aware of your body. l Great resource: www.cancer.org