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Viral and Bacterial Genomes. Review of Viruses Are Viruses Alive? Contain genetic material (DNA or RNA) Cannot live outside of a cellular host Do not.

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Presentation on theme: "Viral and Bacterial Genomes. Review of Viruses Are Viruses Alive? Contain genetic material (DNA or RNA) Cannot live outside of a cellular host Do not."— Presentation transcript:

1 Viral and Bacterial Genomes

2 Review of Viruses

3 Are Viruses Alive? Contain genetic material (DNA or RNA) Cannot live outside of a cellular host Do not contain ribosomes Do not carry out any type of respiration Are not made of cells

4 Virus-Host Specificity Viruses have different shapes that are specific to the attachment sites of their host cells Most viruses are species & cell specific Examples, adenovirus—respiratory cells; polio—nerve cells; HIV—T-cells Some viruses (such as rabies) can cross species

5 Viral Reproduction—Lytic vs. Lysogenic Cycles Lytic cycle –Attachment –Entry –Destruction of host cell DNA –Production of viral proteins & viral DNA –Assembly of viruses –Lysis of Cell and Viral release


7 Lysogenic Cycle Attachment Entry Integration of Viral DNA in host chromosome Reproduction of host cell and viral DNA “Activation” of viral DNA Destruction of host cell DNA Production of viral proteins & viral DNA Assembly of viruses Lysis of Cell and Viral release


9 Two Types of Viruses DNA Viruses RNA Viruses –RNA serves as mRNA –RNA serves as template for mRNA –RNA serves as template for DNA –These viruses are called RETROVIRSES –HIV is an example of a RETROVIRUS

10 Reproduction of HIV


12 “Emerging Viruses” Viruses that cause NEW diseases HIV Ebola Hantavirus Nipah virus Influenza Virus

13 Viroids Pieces of circular RNA that infect plants They reproduce and disrupt the metabolism of plant cells and stunt the growth of the entire plant

14 Prions An infectious protein molecule Cause a number of degenerative brain diseases including “mad cow disease”

15 Bacterial Genomes

16 DNA of Bacteria One circular chromosome The dense region of the DNA is called the nucleoid—not membrane bound Also, may have one or more plasmids

17 Bacterial Reproduction Bacteria reproduce by binary fission This asexual reproduction results in a colony of “clones” However, because of their fast proliferation (every 20 minutes for E. coli), rare mutations still result in significant bacterial diversity

18 Genetic Recombination in Bacteria Transformation Transduction Conjugation

19 Transformation Remember Fred Griffith! Alteration of the bacterial cell’s genotype by the uptake of naked, foreign DNA from the environment


21 Transduction Phages carry bacterial genes from one host cell to another


23 Conjugation Direct transfer of genetic material between two bacterial cells that are temporarily joined. The bacterial version of sex


25 Plasmids Small, circular, self-replicating DNA molecules separate from the bacterial chromosome. Has only a small number of genes These genes not required for the survival & reproduction of the bacterium However, they can give bacteria an advantage for survival

26 Most Famous Plasmids F plasmid—25 genes, most required for the sex pili R plasmids—contain genes conferring antibiotic resistance

27 Transposons A piece of DNA that can move from one location to another in a cell’s genome. Sometimes called “jumping genes” The process “scatters” genes throughout the genome

28 Metabolic Control of Gene Expression in Bacteria 1.Cells can vary the numbers of specific enzyme molecules made, i.e. they can regulate the expression of genes 2.Cells can adjust the activity of enzymes already present


30 Operons E. coli synthesizes tryptophan in five steps, each step catalyzed by a specific enzyme The genes for the five enzymes are clustered together on the bacterial chromosome A single promoter serves all five genes Transcription gives rise to one mRNA molecule that represents all five genes of the pathway with start and stop codons throughout

31 Operons A single “on-off” switch controls the whole cluster of related genes The switch is called the OPERATOR It is positioned within the promoter and controls access of RNA polymerase to the genes The operator plus promoter plus genes is called an OPERON

32 Control of Operons The Operator is normally “open” meaning the series of genes can be transcribed It can be turned off with a REPRESSOR—a protein that binds to the operator and blocks attachment of RNA polymerase This regulatory protein’s gene is located away from the operon

33 Control of Operons The regulatory protein is transcribed continuously and there are always some of these in the cell However, they are allosteric proteins In their “normal” shape, they will not bind to the operator However, when the end product of the operon pathway (i.e. tryptophan) attaches to the allosteric site, the shape changes and it will bind to the operator and switch it off



36 The lac Operon


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