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Chapter 20 Air Pollution.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 20 Air Pollution."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 20 Air Pollution

2 Atmosphere as a Resource
Atmospheric Composition __: 78.08% __: 20.95% __: 0.93% __: 0.04% Ecosystem services Blocks _________ Moderates _________ Redistributes water

3 Air Pollution - Terminology
Chemicals added to the atmosphere by natural events or human activities in high enough concentrations to be harmful Primary Air Pollutant __________________________________________________________________________________ Secondary Air Pollutant Harmful substance formed in the atmosphere ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________


5 Major Air Pollutants

6 Particulate Material Thousands of solid or liquid particles suspended in air Ex: _______________________________________________________________________ Dangerous ____________________________________

7 Nitrogen and Sulfur Oxides
_______________ Greenhouse gases that cause difficulty breathing ___________________ Causes acid precipitation _____________________ Ex: CO and CO2 Greenhouse gases ____________________________ Some are related to photochemical smog and greenhouse gases

8 Ozone Tropospheric Ozone- Vs. Stratospheric Ozone-
________________________________ _________________________________ Vs. Stratospheric Ozone-

9 Sources of Outdoor Air Pollution
Two main sources 1. _____________ 2. _____________ Intentional forest fires is also high

10 Urban Air Pollution Photochemical Smog
formed by chemical reactions involving sunlight, nitrogen oxide, and hydrocarbons

11 Formation of Photochemical Smog

12 Sources of Smog in Los Angeles

13 Effects of Air Pollution
Low level exposure Irritates eyes Causes inflammation of respiratory tract Can develop into chronic respiratory diseases

14 Children and Air Pollution
Greater health threat to children than adults _________________________________ ___________________________________

15 Controlling Air Pollution
Without Electrostatic precipitator With Electrostatic precipitator

16 Controlling Air Pollution
Smokestacks with scrubbers Particulate material can also be controlled

17 The Clean Air Act 1970 Authorizes EPA to set limits on amount of specific air pollutants permitted Focuses on 6 pollutants: ________________ _________________

18 The Clean Air Act

19 Urban Air Quality

20 Other Ways to Improve Air Quality
Reduce sulfur content in gasoline Require federal emission standards for all passenger vehicles Require emission testing for all vehicles

21 Ozone Depletion in Stratosphere
Ozone Protects earth from UV radiation

22 Ozone Depletion in Stratosphere
Ozone thinning/hole First identified in 1985 over Antarctica Caused by human-produced bromine and chlorine containing chemicals Ex: CFCs

23 Ozone Depletion in Stratosphere
Hole over Antarctica requires 2 conditions: a mass of cold air that circulates around the southern polar region forms clouds which Cl and Br stick to Sunlight-speeds up the reaction in which Cl and Br break up ozone

24 Effects of Ozone Depletion
Higher levels of UV-radiation hitting the earth ______________ May ________________ May ______________________________________

25 Recovery of Ozone Layer
Montreal Protocol (1987) Reduction of CFCs Started using HCFCs (greenhouse gas) Full recovery will not occur until 2050

26 Acid Deposition Sulfur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide emissions react with water vapor in the atmosphere and form acids that return to the surface as either dry or wet deposition pH scale

27 How Acid Deposition Develops

28 Effects of Acid Deposition

29 Acid Deposition and Forest Decline

30 Air Pollution Around the World
Developing countries __________________________________________________________________________ Shenyang, China 5 worst cities in world Beijing, China; Mexico City, Mexico; Shanghai, China; Tehran, Iran; and Calcutta, India

31 Case-In-Point Air Pollution in Beijing and Mexico City
Beijing (left) Mexico City (above)

32 Long Distance Transport of Air Pollutants
Global Distillation Effect

33 Indoor Air Pollution Pollutants can be 5-100X greater than outdoors!

34 Ahhhhh Clean Car Smell Over sixty chemicals were identified inside the interiors of the four vehicles in this study. Ten Most Toxic Nissan Versa Chevy Aveo Scion xB Kia Rio Suzuki Forenza Kia Spectra 5 Subaru Forester Chevy Express Hyundai Accent Chevy Silverado Ten Least Toxic Chevy Cobalt Chrysler PT Cruiser Honda Odyssey Volvo V50 Suzuki Aerio Acura RDX BMW X3 Nissan Frontier Toyota Matrix Volvo S40 volatile organic chemicals (VOC’s) in a new minivan were over 35 times the health limit the day after its delivery 34

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