2 Waves Wave: an oscillation that moves from one place to another. Movement of energySound, light, water waves, radio waves
3 Medium: the material the wave moves through Sound waves move through airWater waves move through waterX-rays move through your bodyWaves always move outward
4 Types of WavesTransverse Wave: oscillate perpendicular to the direction the wave moves.Longitudinal Wave: vibrate in the same direction the wave moves.
5 Describing a WaveFrequency: the rate that the every point on the wave moves back and forthHigher frequency, faster it moves back and forth# cycles / # secondsAmplitude: the maximum amount a wave moves from the equilibrium positionHalf the distance from top to bottom
6 Parts of a Transverse Wave Crest: the high point of a waveTrough: the low point of a waveWavelength (λ): the length of one cycle of a waveCrest to crestTrough to troughPoint to point
7 How many waves are in the diagram? What is the λ?
8 Parts of a Longitudinal Wave Compression: compressed portion, high pointRarefaction: stretched portion, low pointWavelength: compression to compression
9 Wave InteractionsBoundary: where the conditions or the medium changes.When a wave meets a boundary, it does one of four things, which are:Reflection: the wave bounces and goes in a new directionRefraction: the wave bends as it passes into and through an objectDiffraction: the wave bend around or through holes in an objectAbsorption: the wave is absorbed and disappears
10 InterferenceInterference (superposition): when two or more oscillations/waves combine (add together)They are in the same space at the same timeConstructive Interference: when parts of two waves add togetherDestructive Interference: when parts of two waves cancel each other
16 Standing WavesStanding Wave: a wave that resonates in a confined spaceNodes: points where the medium does not moveAntinodes: points in a standing wave that have the greatest amplitude (bumps)
17 Standing Waves Wavelength: length of 1 cycle (2 bumps). Harmonics: natural frequencies a medium oscillates atNumbered by how many antinodes the wave hasFundamental: lowest natural frequency; 1st harmonic; 1 bump; 1/2 λ
18 Standing WavesThe frequency of each harmonic is a multiple of the fundamental frequency.The wavelength needs to be determined1 wave = 2 antinodesHarmonicFrequency112 Hz224 Hz336 Hz448 Hz
19 Resonance and Energy Transfer If a driving force is in resonance with another system, there can be a large energy transfer. (shattering wine glass, pushing a kid on a swing, etc)If the driving force is out of phase with the other system, there can be an energy loss. (noise canceling headphones, etc)
22 Standing Waves Speed of a wave is the same, no matter the frequency Only if the medium does not change
23 Speed of a Wave Energy moves in a wave The medium stays in the same average place
24 A wave has a wavelength of 0. 25 meters and has a frequency of 20 Hz A wave has a wavelength of 0.25 meters and has a frequency of 20 Hz. Determine the speed of the wave.
25 Sound moves at a speed of 340 m/s Sound moves at a speed of 340 m/s. If a particular sound wave has a frequency of 800 Hz, what is the wavelength of the sound wave?
26 BeatsThese two different frequencies, when in superposition with each other, created a third wave with it’s own frequency.
27 Beats2 Hz1 Hz3 HzF1 – F2 = FbThe difference between the two starting frequencies was the frequency of the resulting signal, which had moments of high amplitude once every second (1 Hz) . Those moments of constructive interference are called “beats”.
29 Basic ProblemsA 8 Hz sound wave interferes with a 5 Hz sound wave. What is the frequency of the beats you would hear?How many beats could you count in a minute?
30 Basic ProblemsYou have two sets of tuning forks: Small/Large for set A and Medium/Large for set B.Which set will produce beats at higher frequency? Why?Which set will produce beats at a longer interval? Why?
31 Standing Waves and Music Almost all brass instruments work on the same principle, which is that you vibrate your lips to create a disturbance in the instrument. If the frequency of your lips matches the resonant frequency of the instrument, sound (a musical note) will be produced at that frequency. (demo)
32 However, in the confined space of the metal tubing, only whole number wavelengths will resonate, so, once you hit the lowest note possible (without changing the valves), it’s possible to hit twice that frequency, three times that frequency etc. as long as you can produce that frequency vibration with your lips. (demo)
33 Each successive frequency is a whole number multiple of the fundamental frequency. In music, each whole number multiple of the fundamental frequency is called an “octave.” (demo)So, the three boxes above show the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd octaves.
34 By pressing down valves you open or close parts of the metal tubing, thereby reducing or extending the length of the tubes. Longer tubes will produce lower frequency notes.