# Waves.

## Presentation on theme: "Waves."— Presentation transcript:

Waves

Waves Wave: an oscillation that moves from one place to another.
Movement of energy Sound, light, water waves, radio waves

Medium: the material the wave moves through
Sound waves move through air Water waves move through water X-rays move through your body Waves always move outward

Types of Waves Transverse Wave: oscillate perpendicular to the direction the wave moves. Longitudinal Wave: vibrate in the same direction the wave moves.

Describing a Wave Frequency: the rate that the every point on the wave moves back and forth Higher frequency, faster it moves back and forth # cycles / # seconds Amplitude: the maximum amount a wave moves from the equilibrium position Half the distance from top to bottom

Parts of a Transverse Wave
Crest: the high point of a wave Trough: the low point of a wave Wavelength (λ): the length of one cycle of a wave Crest to crest Trough to trough Point to point

How many waves are in the diagram?
What is the λ?

Parts of a Longitudinal Wave
Compression: compressed portion, high point Rarefaction: stretched portion, low point Wavelength: compression to compression

Wave Interactions Boundary: where the conditions or the medium changes. When a wave meets a boundary, it does one of four things, which are: Reflection: the wave bounces and goes in a new direction Refraction: the wave bends as it passes into and through an object Diffraction: the wave bend around or through holes in an object Absorption: the wave is absorbed and disappears

Interference Interference (superposition): when two or more oscillations/waves combine (add together) They are in the same space at the same time Constructive Interference: when parts of two waves add together Destructive Interference: when parts of two waves cancel each other

Standing Waves Standing Wave: a wave that resonates in a confined space Nodes: points where the medium does not move Antinodes: points in a standing wave that have the greatest amplitude (bumps)

Standing Waves Wavelength: length of 1 cycle (2 bumps).
Harmonics: natural frequencies a medium oscillates at Numbered by how many antinodes the wave has Fundamental: lowest natural frequency; 1st harmonic; 1 bump; 1/2 λ

Standing Waves The frequency of each harmonic is a multiple of the fundamental frequency. The wavelength needs to be determined 1 wave = 2 antinodes Harmonic Frequency 1 12 Hz 2 24 Hz 3 36 Hz 4 48 Hz

Resonance and Energy Transfer
If a driving force is in resonance with another system, there can be a large energy transfer. (shattering wine glass, pushing a kid on a swing, etc) If the driving force is out of phase with the other system, there can be an energy loss. (noise canceling headphones, etc)

Superposition Practice

Superposition Practice

Standing Waves Speed of a wave is the same, no matter the frequency
Only if the medium does not change

Speed of a Wave Energy moves in a wave
The medium stays in the same average place

A wave has a wavelength of 0. 25 meters and has a frequency of 20 Hz
A wave has a wavelength of 0.25 meters and has a frequency of 20 Hz. Determine the speed of the wave.

Sound moves at a speed of 340 m/s
Sound moves at a speed of 340 m/s. If a particular sound wave has a frequency of 800 Hz, what is the wavelength of the sound wave?

Beats These two different frequencies, when in superposition with each other, created a third wave with it’s own frequency.

Beats 2 Hz 1 Hz 3 Hz F1 – F2 = Fb The difference between the two starting frequencies was the frequency of the resulting signal, which had moments of high amplitude once every second (1 Hz) . Those moments of constructive interference are called “beats”.

More Beats

Basic Problems A 8 Hz sound wave interferes with a 5 Hz sound wave. What is the frequency of the beats you would hear? How many beats could you count in a minute?

Basic Problems You have two sets of tuning forks: Small/Large for set A and Medium/Large for set B. Which set will produce beats at higher frequency? Why? Which set will produce beats at a longer interval? Why?

Standing Waves and Music
Almost all brass instruments work on the same principle, which is that you vibrate your lips to create a disturbance in the instrument. If the frequency of your lips matches the resonant frequency of the instrument, sound (a musical note) will be produced at that frequency. (demo)

However, in the confined space of the metal tubing, only whole number wavelengths will resonate, so, once you hit the lowest note possible (without changing the valves), it’s possible to hit twice that frequency, three times that frequency etc. as long as you can produce that frequency vibration with your lips. (demo)

Each successive frequency is a whole number multiple of the fundamental frequency.
In music, each whole number multiple of the fundamental frequency is called an “octave.” (demo) So, the three boxes above show the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd octaves.

By pressing down valves you open or close parts of the metal tubing, thereby reducing or extending the length of the tubes. Longer tubes will produce lower frequency notes.