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{ PHILOSOPHY Lesson 3 -The divisions of Philosophy A little Logic Part 1.

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Presentation on theme: "{ PHILOSOPHY Lesson 3 -The divisions of Philosophy A little Logic Part 1."— Presentation transcript:

1 { PHILOSOPHY Lesson 3 -The divisions of Philosophy A little Logic Part 1

2  Objectives: - You will understand the major divisions under which philosophical issues and problems are discussed - The classification of particular issues under their appropriate divisions - The definition of basic logic terminology The divisions of philosophy

3 1. Metaphysics Deals with matters of reality and existence. Divided into 4 basic question areas. - Cosmological – the study of origins - Theological – deals with reality of supernatural beings - Anthropological – basic nature questions of what makes man - Ontological – deals with questions of our existence I. Branches of Philosophy

4 2. Epistimology Deals with the investigation of knowledge and truth claims - What does it mean to know something? - What is truth? - Can I really know something? Epistimology builds on metaphysics – your metaphysics system is what determines your reality I. Branches of Philosophy

5 3.Axiology What is value or good? There are two areas to examine here: - Ethics (what is right or wrong? Is there such a thing as morality? What do we do with moral rules? - Aesthetics – deals with issues of art (beauty and ugliness. Why is this art and that not? Is there meaning in art? Should art reflect reality?) I. Branches of Philosophy

6 4.Miscelleneous Branches  Social and political philosophy  Philosophy of religion  History of philosophy  Philosophy of history  Philosophy of science I. Branches of Philosophy

7 Logic is not so much a branch of philosophy but something you use. There are different kinds of logic. Definition – Logic reflects upon the nature of thinking itself. - Philosophy is thinking about things - Logic is how do we think about things. - Logic is the tool or methodology of doing philosophy. You cannot do philosophy without logic. - All branches depend on the laws of logic II. Logic

8 Important terminology 1. Thinking – any mental activity 2. Reasoning – the producing of reasons as evidence or support for certain conclusions we wish to establish…(not assertions) 3. Argument – a group of reasons that lead to a conclusion 4. Validity – the structure of an argument 5. True/False – refers to the quality of the reasons 6. Sound argument II. Logic

9 The laws of logic These are the foundations for reason. There is never an exemption on these laws. They are undeniable. 1. The law of non-contradiction – something cannot both be and not be at the same time and in the same respect. 2. The law of excluded middle – something either is or is not 3. The law of identity – Something is what it is II. Logic

10 The Camels   Four tasmanian camels traveling on a very narrow ledge encounter four tasmanian camels coming the other way.   As everyone knows, tasmanian camels never go backwards, especially when on a precarious ledge. The camels will climb over each other, but only if there is a camel sized space on the other side.   The camels didn't see each other until there was only exactly one camel's width between the two groups.   How can all camels pass, allowing both groups to go on their way, without any camel reversing?

11 Solution: First a camel from one side moves forward, then two camels from the other side move forward, then three camels from the first side move forward etc... etc...

12 Here are three examples of verbal logical reasoning questions. Choose one correct answer for each question: a. If there are no dancers that aren’t slim and no singers that aren’t dancers, then which statements are always true? There is not one slim person that isn't a dancer   All singers are slim   Anybody slim is also a singer   None of the above

13   Answer:   The tricky part of this question is that it is phrased negatively. This means that we have to identify the nature of each group initially and establish the relationship between the groups. Once the illustration is made, the relationship between the groups becomes clearer. The only true statement is that all singers are slim.   The answer is 'All singers are slim'.

14 Dan is Joshua's son and Guy's brother. Margaret is Guy's mother and Judy's daughter. Which of the statements below are true?   Judy is Dan's mother-in-law   Margaret is Dan's mother   Judy is Joshua's grandmother   None of the above

15   Answer:   Dan and Guy are siblings, (not half brothers or step-brothers) and therefore Margaret, who is Guy's mother, is also Dan's mother.   The answer is 'Margaret is Dan's mother'.

16   After a local art theft, six suspects were being interviewed. Below is a summary of their statements. Police know that exactly four of them told one lie each and all of the other statements are true. From this information can you tell who committed the crime? Alan said: It wasn't Brian It wasn't Dave It wasn't Eddie Brian said: It wasn't Alan It wasn't Charlie It wasn't Eddie Charlie said: It wasn't Brian It wasn't Freddie It wasn't Eddie Dave said: It wasn't Alan It wasn't Freddie It wasn't Charlie Eddie said: It wasn't Charlie It wasn't Dave It wasn't Freddie Freddie said: It wasn't Charlie It wasn't Dave It wasn't Alan

17   Answer: Charlie committed the crime. If any other person had committed the crime there would not be exactly 4 lies told.

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