Presentation on theme: "Philosophy. Greek thinkers intensely curious What is the nature of the world? What is the meaning of life? What is justice? What is truth? What."— Presentation transcript:
Greek thinkers intensely curious What is the nature of the world? What is the meaning of life? What is justice? What is truth? What is beauty? What is wisdom? How should people be governed?
A Greek word From “ philo ” meaning love of And “ sophy ” meaning wisdom So a philosopher is a lover of wisdom Another word using “ philo ” Philadelphia: City of Brotherly Love
First Greek philosoper Thales of Miletus(600BC) Rejected the belief that gods controlled the universe Observed that the universe was governed by natural laws People could use their reason to understand these laws
The Sophists Not interested in physical world Professional teachers Prized public speaking and ability to argue clearly Main concern was how to achieve political success
Pythagoras Greek philosophers studied all areas of human knowledge Students of geometry know his famous theorem Believed that the entire world could be explained by numbers
Socrates Lived in Athens (469 to 399 BC) Championed the use of reason alone in search for truth and knowledge Left no writing Spent his days in street of Athens teaching anyone who would listen Accepted no pay “Know thyself”
More on Socrates Taught his students to know themselves and examine their deepest beliefs Developed the SOCRATIC METHOD of teaching helping students to learn by asking questions that lead them to draw their own conclusions about information Taught his students to question everything and to think for themselves Sentenced to death in 399 BC for “teaching false religion and corrupting the youth of Athens.”
Plato Wrote down everything Socrates said Left Athens after Socrates’ death Set up a school called the Academy, a school of mathematics and philosophy Written works in the form of dialogues Wrote one of first works of political science called “The Republic”
Political Philosophy Asks a fundamental question: What kind of government SHOULD we have?
Democracy…also a Greek word Demos….majority Cracy…to rule
Plato Put the BEST people in charge Test people when they are 3-4 to find out how smart they are Educate them When they are in their 50s find them and put them in charge These will be the “ philosopher kings ” These 9 or 10 men are in charge Do not follow the will of the majority because the majority of people are stupid…let smart people decide 427-347 BC in Greece Had a school called The Academy
Aristotle Was the most brilliant student of Plato at the Academy An excellent example of what the Greeks considered a well educated man, he studied many different subjects(mathematics, political science, medicine biology) Believed that reason was the highest good
Aristotle Aristotle is famous for his many sayings, many of which are still quoted today. Here are just a few of them. "We are what we repeatedly do. Excellence then is a habit "I count him braver who overcomes his desires than him who conquers his enemies; for the hardest victory is over self” "We must reduce everything to the simplest form possible, but no simpler.” "We think in pictures. If you wish to change what you think, change the picture."
Aristotle Was the first to classify things into genus and species Praised the virtues of self control and self reliance Opened a school in Athens called The Lyceum Was the teacher of Alexander the Great
Aristotle and political philosophy Look to history and ask: What actually has worked? Compare and contrast what actually exists Consider other political experiments and pick and choose “ the best ” 384-322 BC in Greece Had a star pupil himself: Alexander the Great