4 Define the terms in bold and italics from pp. 237 – 240. Solids, liquids, and gases can combine to produce 9 different types of solution. Give an example of each type.p #’s 5, 7, 9, & 10
5 Terms solution - is a homogeneous mixture solute - the substance that dissolves OR the substance in lesser quantitysolvent - the substance which dissolves the solute OR the substance in greater quantityconcentrated - a large amount of solute relative to the amount of solventdilute - a small amount of solute relative to the amount of solvent
6 Termssaturated – contains the maximum amount of dissolved solute at a given temperature and pressureunsaturated – contains less than the maximum amount of dissolved solute at a given temperature and pressuresupersaturated – contains more than the maximum amount of dissolved solute for a given temperature and pressure
7 Terms miscible – liquids that dissolve in each other immiscible – liquids that do not dissolve in each otheraqueous - the solvent is wateralloy - a solid solution of two or more metals
8 TermsSolubility - the maximum amount of solute that can be dissolved under specific temperature and pressure conditionseg. the solubility of HCl at 25 °C is 12.4 mol/Leg mL of water at 25°C dissolves 36.2 g of sodium chloride
9 Terms soluble – solubility is greater than 1 g per 100 mL of solvent. insoluble - solubility is less than 0.1 g per 100 mL of solvent.
11 Factors Affecting Solubility (pp.243 – 254) List 3 factors that affect the rate of dissolving.How does each of the following affect solubility?particle sizetemperaturepressure
12 Rate of Dissolvingfor most solids, the rate of dissolving is greater at higher temperaturesstirring a mixture or by shaking the container increases the rate of dissolving.decreasing the size of the particles increases the rate of dissolving.
13 Solubilitysmall molecules are often more soluble than larger molecules.solubility of solids increases with temperature.the solubility of most liquids is not affected by temperature.the solubility of gases decreases as temperature increasesan increase in pressure increases the solubility of a gas in a liquid.
14 Factors Affecting Solubility What type of solvent will dissolve:polar solutes and ionic solutesnonpolar solutesWhy do some ionic compounds have low solubility in water?p. 254 #’s 1, 2, 4 - 6
15 “Like Dissolves Like”ionic solutes and polar covalent solutes both dissolve in polar solventsnon-polar solutes dissolve in non-polar solvents.compounds with very strong ionic bonds, such as AgCl, tend to be less soluble in water than compounds with weak ionic bonds, such as NaCl.
16 Applications1. An opened soft drink goes ‘flat’ faster if not refrigerated.2. Thermal pollution (warming lake water) is not healthy for the fish living in it.3. After pouring 5 glasses of pop from a 2 litre container, Jonny stoppered the bottle and crushed it to prevent the remaining pop from going flat.
17 Molar Concentration Review: - Find the molar mass of Ca(OH)2 - How many moles in g of Ca(OH)2?- Find the mass of mol of Ca(OH)2.
18 Molar ConcentrationThe terms concentrated and dilute are qualitative descriptions of solubility.A quantitative measure of solubility uses numbers to describe how much solute is dissolved or the concentration of a solution.
19 Molar ConcentrationThe MOLAR CONCENTRATION of a solution is the number of moles of solute (n) per litre of solution (v).
21 V Molar Concentration FORMULA: Molar Concentration = number of moles volume in litresC = nV
22 eg. Calculate the molar concentration of: 4.65 mol of NaOH is dissolved to prepare 2.83 L of solution.(1.64 mol/L)15.50 g of NaOH is dissolved to prepare 475 mL of solution.( mol → mol/L)p # 19
23 eg. Calculate the following: RearrangedFormulaseg. Calculate the following:the number of moles in 4.68 L of mol/L KCl solution. (0.468 mol)the mass of KCl in 268 mL of 2.50 mol/L KCl solution. (0.670 mol → g)p #’s
24 the volume of 6. 00 mol/L HCl(aq) that can be made using 0 the volume of 6.00 mol/L HCl(aq) that can be made using mol of HCl.the volume of 1.60 mol/L HCl(aq) that can be made using 20.0 g of HCl.
25 Dilution (p. 272) The number of moles remains the same Number of moles before dilutionWhen a solution is diluted:The concentration decreasesThe volume increasesThe number of moles remains the sameni = nfNumber of moles after dilution
26 Ci Vi = Cf Vf Dilution (p. 272) ni = nf eg. Calculate the molar concentration of a vinegar solution prepared by diluting 10.0 mL of a 17.4 mol/L solution to a final volume of 3.50 L.
27 p #’s 25 – 27p #’s 1, 2, 4, & 5DON’T SHOW UP UNLESSTHIS IS DONE!!
28 Solution Preparation & Dilution standard solution – a solution of known concentrationvolumetric flask – a flat-bottomed glass vessel that is used to prepare a standard solutiondelivery pipet – pipets that accurately measure one volumegraduated pipet – pipets that have a series of lines that can be use to measure many different volumes
29 To prepare a standard solution: 1. calculate the mass of solute needed2. weigh out the desired mass3. dissolve the solute in a beaker using less than the desired volume4. transfer the solution to a volumetric flask (rinse the beaker into the flask)5. add water until the bottom of the meniscus is at the etched line
30 To dilute a standard solution: 1. Rinse the pipet several times with deionized water.2. Rinse the pipet twice with the standard solution.3. Use the pipet to transfer the required volume.4. Add enough water to bring the solution to its final volume.
31 Percent Concentration Concentration may also be given as a %.The amount of solute is a percentage of the total volume/mass of solution.liquids in liquids - % v/vsolids in liquids - % m/vsolids in solids - % m/m
37 eg. 5. 00 mg of NaF is dissolved in 100. 0 kg of solution eg mg of NaF is dissolved in kg of solution. Calculate the concentration in:a) ppmb) ppb
38 ppm = g x 106100,000 g= 0.05 ppmppb = g x 109= 50.0 ppb
39 DON’T SHOW UP UNLESS THIS IS DONE!! p #’s 15 – 17pp. 277, 278#’s 11, 13, 15 – 18, 20DON’T SHOW UP UNLESSTHIS IS DONE!!
40 Solution Stoichiometry 1. Write a balanced equation2. Calculate moles givenn=m/M OR n=CV3. Mole ratios4. Calculate required quantity
41 Solution Stoichiometry eg mL of a HCl(aq) solution is used to neutralize 30.0 mL of a 2.48 mol/L NaOH solution.Calculate the molar concentration of the HCl(aq) solution.p. 304: #’s 16, 17, & 18Worksheet
42 Sample Problems1. What mass of copper metal is needed to react with mL of mol/L silver nitrate solution?2. Calculate the volume of 2.00 M HCl(aq) needed to neutralize 1.20 g of dissolved NaOH.3. What volume of 3.00 mol/L HNO3(aq) is needed to neutralize mL of mol/L Sr(OH)2(aq)?
43 Sample Problem Solutions Cu(s) + 2 AgNO3(aq) → 2 Ag(s) + Cu(NO3)2(aq)Step 2 n = mol AgNO3Step 3 n = mol CuStep 4 m = g Cu
44 Sample Problem Solutions HCl(aq) + NaOH(aq) → NaCl(aq) + H2O(l)Step 2 n = mol NaOHStep 3 n = mol HClStep 4 V = L HCl
45 Sample Problem Solutions 2 HNO3(aq) + Sr(OH)2(aq) →2 H2O(l) + Sr(NO3)2(aq)Step 2 n = mol Sr(OH)2Step 3 n = mol HNO3Step 4 V = mol/L HNO3
46 The Solution Process (p. 299) Dissociation occurs when an ionic compound breaks into ions as it dissolves in water.A dissociation equation shows what happens to an ionic compound in water.eg. NaCl(s) → Na+(aq) + Cl-(aq)K2SO4(s) → 2 K+(aq) + SO42-(aq)Ca(NO3)2(s) → Ca2+(aq) NO3-(aq)
47 The Solution Process (p. 299) Solutions of ionic compounds conduct electric current.A solute that conducts an electric current in an aqueous solution is called an electrolyte.
48 The Solution Process (p. 299) Acids are also electrolytes.Acids form ions when dissolved in water.eg. H2SO4(aq) → 2 H+(aq) + SO42-(aq)HCl(s) → H+(aq) + Cl-(aq)
49 The Solution Process (p. 299) Molecular Compounds DO NOT dissociate in water.eg. C12H22O11(s) → C12H22O11(aq)Because they DO NOT conduct electric current in solution, molecular compounds are non-electrolytes.
50 The Solution Process (p. 299) The molar concentration of any dissolved ion is calculated using the ratio from the dissociation equation.eq. What is the molar concentration of each ion in a 5.00 mol/L MgCl2(aq) solution:5.00 mol/L5.00 mol/L10.00 mol/L
51 p #’s 7 – 9What mass of calcium chloride is required to prepare 2.00 L of mol/L Cl-(aq) solution?p # 14p #’s 11, 12, 16, & 18