Presentation on theme: "Plan for Tues/Wed, 21/22 Oct 08 Turn in Exp 4 Pre-lab Today: Exp 4, Volumetric Analysis Purpose: –To standardize an ~0.1 M aqueous solution of NaOH using."— Presentation transcript:
Plan for Tues/Wed, 21/22 Oct 08 Turn in Exp 4 Pre-lab Today: Exp 4, Volumetric Analysis Purpose: –To standardize an ~0.1 M aqueous solution of NaOH using a primary standard (KHP – potassium hydrogen phthalate). –To use the standardized NaOH solution as a secondary standard to determine the unknown molarity of an acid solution. THIS EXPERIMENT WILL BE WRITTEN UP AS A FORMAL LAB REPORT. –The formal report format will be discussed in lecture. THIS EXPERIMENT IS DUE AT THE BEGINNING OF NEXT WEEK’S LAB SESSION.
Tips for success TECHNIQUE DO NOT let the level of solution in your buret fall below the markings!! DO NOT force the small volume of solution out of the bottom of your pipet tip!! MAKE SURE to have me check your NaOH dilution calculation and your percent-difference calculations (these must be within 1%!!). MAKE SURE to mix your diluted NaOH solution really really well!! YOU NEED YOUR DILUTE NaOH SOLUTION IN PART B!! Don’t throw it away!! PROCEDURE CHANGES: PART A: Weigh out only 0.4-0.5 g of KHP (not 0.9-1.0 g). PART B: Obtain only 50 mL of unknown acid from stockroom (not 100 mL). Do not check out a magnetic stir bar…you will swirl your titration flasks with your hand. WASTE Everything goes in the sink. If you have excess 6 M NaOH, run the tap for 10-20 sec when you dump it out. Return unused KHP solid to the stockroom. NEVER put a spatula, etc into a reagent bottle. NEVER return unused reagent to the reagent bottle. Any unused reagent must be placed in the waste container. CLEAN UP THE BALANCE AREA!! THROW AWAY THE WEIGHING PAPERS!! SAFETY KHP(s) and NaOH(aq) are toxic and corrosive!! BE CAREFUL!! Do not touch your face!! Gloves are available at the back of the lab. Be sure to wash and dry your lab bench to remove all traces of any spilled chemicals. Wash your hands with soap and water before you leave lab.
Acid-Base Neutralization Rxns HX(aq) + KOH(aq) KX(aq) + H 2 O(l) @ eq. pt: X -,Na +, H 2 O before eq pt: H +, X -, Na +, H 2 O after eq. pt: OH -,Na +, X -, H 2 O HX NaOH Neutralization: when an acid and a base react to form a molecule (water or another weak acid) and an aqueous salt. If the acid and base we use is strong, and we add enough base to just consume all the available acid, we say the acid has been “neutralized.” [H + ] = [OH - ]
What does an endpoint look like? TOO DARK!!!That’s more like it…
Making your ~0.1 M NaOH Solution You have 6 M NaOH, you want to make a solution that is approximately 0.1 M. –Using the KHP primary standard, you will determine the actual concentration of this solution to 4 sig figs. Recall the dilution formula: M 1 V 1 = M 2 V 2 where… M 1, V 1 = molarity and volume of first solution M 2, V 2 = molarity and volume of second solution V 1 = ? M 1 = 6 M V 2 = 400 mL M 2 = 0.1 M M 1 V 1 = M 2 V 2 V 1 = M2V2M1M2V2M1 This volume of NaOH goes in your 500 mL Erlenmeyer flask, and you dilute it up to ~400 mL.
Standardizing the KOH Solution You will dissolve a known mass of KHP in water, and then titrate it with your ~0.1 M NaOH. The known mass of KHP is converted to moles of NaOH. Since you know the volume of NaOH(aq) you delivered to reach the end point, you can determine the molarity of your NaOH solution. ? mol NaOH = x g KHC 8 H 4 O 4 g KHC 8 H 4 O 4 mol KHC 8 H 4 O 4 1 mol KHC 8 H 4 O 4 1 mol NaOH g of KHP you weigh out MM of KHP ? [NaOH] = x L NaOH soln mol NaOH vol of NaOH solution you deliver to the flask from the buret
Determining Unknown Molarity of an Acid You will titrate a sample of a monoprotic acid of unknown concentration using your standardized NaOH solution. Since you know the molarity of your NaOH and the volume needed to reach the end point, you can determine the moles of acid present in your sample. Since you know the volume of you acid sample, you can determine the molarity. ? mol HX = x L NaOH L NaOH mol NaOH 1 mol NaOH 1 mol HX vol of NaOH you delivered [NaOH] you determined previously ? [HX] = x L HX soln mol HX vol of HX solution you measured out