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Infection Prevention and Control

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Presentation on theme: "Infection Prevention and Control"— Presentation transcript:

1 Infection Prevention and Control
Standard Precautions, Hand Hygiene, & Use of PPE Christine Mukashema Infection Prevention and Control Manager, King Faisal Hospital, Kigali

2 Standard Precautions Not the same as universal precautions (UP)
Combine the concepts of UP and body fluids isolation Apply to: Blood – including dried blood ALL other body fluids, secretions, excretions, EXCEPT sweat Non-intact skin Mucous membranes All patients

3 Standard Precautions Represent the “standard of care” required
Are the first level of precautions Reduce the risk of transmission of micro-organisms from both recognised and unrecognised sources

4 Transmission of infection
Requires 3 elements: A source of infecting micro-organisms A susceptible host, and A means of transmission

5 Standard Precautions Interrupt the means of transmission by providing a system of barriers to transmission: Adequate hand hygiene Appropriate use of personal protective equipment Prevention of needle stick and sharps injuries Disinfection of patient care equipment Environmental control Linen management Waste management



8 Definitions Hand hygiene A general term Hand washing
Washing hands with plain soap and water Hand antisepsis/ disinfection Any action using an antiseptic agent

9 Skin Bacteria Resident Transient Normally live on skin
Low pathogenic value Not usually associated with cross transmission Do not normally live on skin High pathogenic value Often associated with cross transmission

10 Types of Hand Washing Social Antiseptic/surgical
When hands are visibly dirty Before eating Before giving medications After bedmaking Before and after significant patient contact If hands are not visibly dirty alcohol rub can be used Before and after duty Before and after aseptic procedures Before and after wearing gloves After handling bedpans and other contaminated articles Entering and leaving high risk areas



13 Other Aspects of Hand Hygiene
Use of alcohol rubs Nails General skin care

14 Barriers to Compliance
Inaccessibility of hand hygiene supplies Skin irritation from hand hygiene agents Intensity of patient care Priority of patient care, Interference with HWC/pt relationship Wearing of gloves Forgetfulness Lack of knowledge of the guidelines, and Lack of information on the importance of hand hygiene.

15 Hand washing technique audit


17 PPE- Principles Assess risk of exposure to blood, body fluids, excretions or secretions Choose items of PPE according to risk Use PPE correctly and effectively Use PPE at all times where contact with patient’s blood, body fluids, excretions and secretions may occur Avoid any contact between used PPE and surfaces, clothing or people outside the patient care area Discard used PPE in appropriate disposal container Do not share PPE Completely and thoroughly wash hands when ever you remove PPE

18 Wash your hands IMMEDIATELY after removal of gloves
PPE - Gloves All staff must wear non-sterile disposable gloves whenever there is CONTACT or a REASONABLE ANTICIPATION of contact with blood, body fluids, mucosa, non-intact skin or other potentially infectious material Change between tasks on the same patient after contact with infectious material Remove immediately after completion of the task for which you are wearing them, BEFORE touching items that are not contaminated Wash your hands IMMEDIATELY after removal of gloves

19 PPE – Gowns/Aprons Clean non-sterile gown or apron
whenever contact or protective precautions are required Plastic apron must be worn instead of a gown whenever there is REASONABLE ANTICIPATION of procedures likely to generate splashes or sprays of blood, body fluids, tissue, secretions, or excretions

20 PPE – Gowns/Aprons If using in contact or protective precautions:
If soiled, moist or due to be changed: Hang appropriately for re-use Change gown daily if not moist/visibly soiled Roll into a ball in a motion directed away from the body Discard gown into an appropriate receptacle

21 PPE – Facial Protection
Mask use in isolation: Airborne precautions – N95 particulate respirator mask Droplet precautions – surgical mask Protection against blood and/or body fluid splash, either: Surgical mask & goggles Face shield


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