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# 7/11/2009 1Dr. Salwa Tayel. 7/11/2009 Dr. Salwa Tayel 2 By Family and Community Medicine Department King Saud University DEMOGRAPHY.

## Presentation on theme: "7/11/2009 1Dr. Salwa Tayel. 7/11/2009 Dr. Salwa Tayel 2 By Family and Community Medicine Department King Saud University DEMOGRAPHY."— Presentation transcript:

7/11/2009 1Dr. Salwa Tayel

7/11/2009 Dr. Salwa Tayel 2 By Family and Community Medicine Department King Saud University DEMOGRAPHY

7/11/2009 3Dr. Salwa Tayel Learning objectives 1.Calculate rates measuring the growth of the population 2.Determine population doubling time. 3.Know the Concept of Demographic transition 4.List The stages of demographic transition 5.List factors affecting Population Dynamics By the end of this lecture you will be able to:

7/11/2009 4Dr. Salwa Tayel Rates measuring the growth of the population 1.Rate Of Natural Increase The natural increase in size of any population is the product of subtraction of deaths from births. Rate of natural increase (RNI) =

7/11/2009 5Dr. Salwa Tayel Example In KSA in 2004 In KSA in 2004 Crude Birth Rate:25.3/1000 population Crude Death Rate: 3.8/1000 population Calculate RNI?

7/11/2009 6Dr. Salwa Tayel 2.Growth rate The growth rate takes into consideration not only births and deaths but also migration. The growth rate takes into consideration not only births and deaths but also migration. Growth rate (GR) = RNI + Net migration rate Growth rate (GR) = RNI + Net migration rate

7/11/2009Dr. Salwa Tayel7 If a population is growing at a constant rate of 1% per year it would be expected to double in 69.3 years (approximately every 70 years). A Law of 70 is much simpler to remember than a Law of 69.3If a population is growing at a constant rate of 1% per year it would be expected to double in 69.3 years (approximately every 70 years). A Law of 70 is much simpler to remember than a Law of 69.3 If the rate of growth is 2% then the expected doubling time is 70/2 or 35 years.If the rate of growth is 2% then the expected doubling time is 70/2 or 35 years. Population Doubling time Law of 70

7/11/2009 8Dr. Salwa Tayel The demographic transition is the description of secular trends in population growth in relation to changes over time in death or mortality rates and birth or fertility rates. The demographic transition is the description of secular trends in population growth in relation to changes over time in death or mortality rates and birth or fertility rates. Demographic transition describes the major demographic trends that happened to Western countries in the past two centuries. Demographic transition describes the major demographic trends that happened to Western countries in the past two centuries. Demographic transition

7/11/2009Dr. Salwa Tayel9 Source: Joseph A. McFalls, Jr. Population: A Lively Introduction. Third edition. Population Bulletin 53(3); 1998: 39.

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7/11/2009 11Dr. Salwa Tayel The stages of the demographic transition During stage 1, both the death rate and the birth rate are high. The birth rate is constant, while the death rate fluctuates in the face of natural disasters as famines, floods, epidemics, and wars. During stage 1, both the death rate and the birth rate are high. The birth rate is constant, while the death rate fluctuates in the face of natural disasters as famines, floods, epidemics, and wars. There are many reasons for this: many children die in infancy (high infant mortality), so parents tend to have more children to compensate for deaths many children die in infancy (high infant mortality), so parents tend to have more children to compensate for deaths children are needed to work on the land to grow food and for family support children are needed to work on the land to grow food and for family support high death rates because of epidemics, famines, poor diet, poor hygiene and little medical care. high death rates because of epidemics, famines, poor diet, poor hygiene and little medical care. Stage 1 (high stationary)

7/11/2009 12Dr. Salwa Tayel Stage (1) High stationary: High birth rate and high death rate High birth rate and high death rate High stationary e.g. central Africa High stationary e.g. central Africa (Slow population growth)

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7/11/2009 15Dr. Salwa Tayel Stage 2 (early expanding) During stage 2, Birth rate remains high but the death rate begins a sharp decline due to major improvements in living standards attributable to industrialization. The large gap between the birth rate and the death rate accounts for the population explosion. The reasons for declining death rate are: Improvements in sanitation and water supply Improvements in sanitation and water supply Better quality and quantity of food produced Better quality and quantity of food produced Transport and communications improve the movements of food and medical supplies Transport and communications improve the movements of food and medical supplies

7/11/2009 16Dr. Salwa Tayel Stage (2) Early expanding: High birth rate and rapid fall of death rate. Rapid population growth Rapid population growth (Population explosion) e.g. India. (Population explosion) e.g. India.

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7/11/2009 18Dr. Salwa Tayel Stage 3 (late expanding) During stage 3, Birth rates fall rapidly as people start controlling their fertility and limiting family size. The fall in birth rate is due to: Lower infant mortality rate so, most of the children will actually survive into adulthood Children become more expensive to raise largely because of increasing educational demands. A declining need for children as farm labors due to industrialization and mechanization Increased access to contraception

7/11/2009 19Dr. Salwa Tayel Stage (3) Late expanding: High fall of birth rate and rapid fall of death rate. Moderate population growth e.g. Egypt. Moderate population growth e.g. Egypt.

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7/11/2009 22Dr. Salwa Tayel Stage 4 (low stationary) In stage 4, the final stage, both birth rates and death rates are low. But in contrast to stage 1, birth rates fluctuate, indicative of fertility control as people alter their reproduction according to socioeconomic changes.

7/11/2009 23Dr. Salwa Tayel Stage (4) Low stationary: Low birth rate and low death rate. e.g. most industrialized countries (Slow population growth)

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7/11/2009 25Dr. Salwa Tayel United States Population, 1995 Source: Joseph A. McFalls, Jr. Population: A Lively Introduction. Population Bulletin 46(2); 1995: 22.

7/11/2009 26Dr. Salwa Tayel Source: Joseph A. McFalls, Jr. Population: A Lively Introduction. Population Bulletin 46(2); 1995: 22.

7/11/2009 27Dr. Salwa Tayel Stage 5 (declining) A new fifth stage is added to the model, due to some countries such as Germany, Japan,.. having higher death rate than birth rate, so that their populations are actually falling.

7/11/2009 28Dr. Salwa Tayel Stage (5) Declining: Death rate > birth rate Decline e.g. Japan

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7/11/2009 32Dr. Salwa Tayel Population Dynamics Population dynamics include the complex interaction of the components of population growth, their determinants and consequences. Population dynamics include the complex interaction of the components of population growth, their determinants and consequences. The components of population dynamics are Fertility. Fertility. Mortality. Mortality. Migration. Migration.

7/11/2009 33Dr. Salwa Tayel =… Live Births/ 1000 population in a year. 1.Crude Birth Rate (CBR) Is the simplest indicator of fertility. Is the simplest indicator of fertility. It is defined as the number of live births per 1000 mid-year population in a given year and locality. I - Fertility (Natality Rates)

7/11/2009 34Dr. Salwa Tayel 2.General fertility rate (GFR) It relates births to females in the child bearing period (15-49 years). = …Live birth/1000 female population aged 15-49.

7/11/2009 35Dr. Salwa Tayel 3. Age specific fertility rate = = …Live births/1000 female population in specified age group. It is the most sensitive indicator of fertility

7/11/2009 36Dr. Salwa Tayel Example Age specific fertility rate in (15-19) age group = = …Live births/1000 female population in 15-19 year group.

7/11/2009 37Dr. Salwa Tayel 4 - Total fertility rate (TFR): TFR represents the number of births that would be born to a woman throughout her reproductive period. In developing countries the TFR is over 6.0 children per woman, a very high rate. In most developed countries the TFR is under 2.0. TFR in Egypt in year 2000 was 3.4 children/woman. TFR in KSA in year 2004 was 3.68 children/woman

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