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Chapter 4 Police in Society: History and Organization

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1 Chapter 4 Police in Society: History and Organization

2 Learning Objectives Describe how law enforcement developed in feudal England Summarize characteristics of the first law enforcement agencies Discuss the development of law enforcement in the United States Analyze the problems of early police agencies Discuss how reformers attempted to create professional police agencies

3 Learning Objectives Describe the major changes in law enforcement between 1970 and today Be familiar with the major federal law enforcement agencies Summarize the differences among state, county, and local law enforcement Explain the role of technology in police work

4 The History of Police Origins of police traced to early English society Before 1066 BCE: Pledge System - families banded together for protection Prior to the thirteenth Century in England: Shires Similar to counties Reeves Appointed to supervise the territory

5 The History of Police In the thirteenth Century England: In 1326:
Watch system Employed watchmen to protect against robberies, fires, and disturbances In 1326: The office of the Justice of the Peace was created

6 Private Police and Thief Takers
During early eighteenth century: Rising crime rates encouraged and new form of private, monied police who profited from legal and illegal conduct as informal police departments These private police were referred to as “Thief Takers”

7 Creating Public Police
1829: Sir Robert Peel, England’s home secretary lobbied an “Act for Improving the Police in and near the Metropolis” Established the first organized police force in London with over 1,000 men By 1856, all boroughs and counties in England were required to form their own police force

8 Law Enforcement in Colonial America
Paralleled British model County Sheriff Collecting taxes, supervising elections, and performing other matters of business Instead of patrolling or seeking out crime, the Sheriff reacted to citizens’ complaints and investigated crimes

9 Early Police Agencies Boston created first formal U.S. police dept. in 1838 New York Police – 1844 Philadelphia Police – 1854 Conflict between police and the public was born in the difficulty that untrained, unprofessional officers had in patrolling the streets of cities and controlling labor disputes

10 Early Police Agencies Police during the nineteenth century:
Involved foot patrols Were regarded as incompetent and corrupt Police agencies evolved slowly during the second half of the nineteenth century Uniforms were introduced in New York (1853) Communication links between precincts using telegraph (1850s) Bicycles introduced (1897) Primary responsibility was maintaining order

11 Policing in the Twentieth Century
The emergence of professionalism The 1960s and Beyond Policing in the 1970s Policing in the 1980s Policing in the 1990s

12 The Emergence of Professionalism
1893 International Association of Chiefs of Police (IACP) Called for a civil service police force August Vollmer Most famous police reformer Instituted university training for young officers Helped to develop the school of Criminology at the University of California, at Berkeley

13 The 1960s and Beyond Turmoil and crisis in the 1960s
Supreme Court decisions impacted police Civil rights of suspects expanded significantly Civil unrest between the public and police Rapidly growing crime rate in the 1960s Both violent and property crimes increased

14 The 1970s 1970s There were structural changes in police departments, increased federal support for criminal justice Law Enforcement Assistance Administration provided resources: Improved police training Supported innovative police research More woman and minorities were recruited for police work

15 The 1980s and 1990s 1980s Emergence of community policing, unions fought for increase in salaries, state and local budgets were cut 1990s Rodney King case prompted an era of police reform Police departments embraced forms of policing that stressed cooperation with the community and problem solving

16 Policing and Law Enforcement Today
Law Enforcement agencies are adapting to the changing nature of crime (Ex: terrorism and internet fraud) 700,000 sworn law enforcement officers throughout these jurisdictions: Federal State County Metropolitan Private

17 Discussion Questions What is a typical day like for a police officer?
What do officers do on boring days?

18 Crime Fighting

19 Federal Law Enforcement Agencies
U.S. Justice Department Agencies: Federal Bureau of Investigations Drug Enforcement Administration Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives U.S. Marshals Department of Homeland Security Agencies: Customs and Border Protection (CBP) The Secret Service

20 State Law Enforcement Agencies
First agency was the Texas Rangers, created in 1835 First truly modern state police agencies: 1903 – Connecticut 1905 – Pennsylvania State police agencies 60,000 officers and 30,000 civilians Primarily responsible for highway patrol and traffic law enforcement

21 County Law Enforcement Agencies
Today sheriffs’ offices contain 330,000 full-time employees including 175,000 sworn personnel Provide court security Operate the jail system Duties vary widely depending on size

22 Metropolitan Law Enforcement Agencies
Range in size from agencies with 40,000 officers to departments with only 1 part-time officer Nearly 13,000 departments with over 460,000 sworn personnel Majority of departments have fewer than 50 officers and serve a population under 25,000 Most provide a wide variety of services and functions

23 Private Policing Private security has become a multimillion- dollar industry 10,000 firms and 1.5 million employees People employed in private security outnumber public police by almost three to one Privatized security costs less than public officers

24 Discussion Questions Why do you think private security services is growing so quickly in America? As a cost effective approach to serving their own interests, private security services have become incredibly popular with both public and private businesses. How do you see the privatization of security services impacting public policing in the future?

25 Private Security

26 Technology and Law Enforcement
There is little doubt that the influence of technology on policing will continue to grow: Crime Mapping License Plate Recognition Technology Digitizing Criminal Identification Automated Fingerprint Identification Systems Digital Dental Records DNA Testing

27 Future Technology Genetic algorithms Augmented Reality technology
Automated Biometric Identification System

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