3 Introduction Radioactive Substance Act 1968 First legislation to control the use of ionizing radiation (medical & non medical) in Malaysia.Director General of Health is the Authority.Atomic Energy Licensing Act 1984 (Act 304)Repeals the Radioactive Substance Act 1968.Provides powers to control nuclear reactor operation in addition to the power given under Radioactive Substances Act 1968.
5 Atomic Energy Licensing Act 1984 Scope of the Act 304To control any radioactive materials, nuclear materials, prescribed substances or irradiating apparatus in medical and non-medical application.To issue licence for using any radioactive materials or irradiating apparatus for medical (diagnostic or therapeutic) purposes only to a registered medical practitioner, registered veterinary surgeon, radiologist, radiotherapist or registered dentist.
6 Atomic Energy Licensing Act 1984 The Purpose of the Act 304 are to ensureThe safe, optimum and efficacious use of radiation in medical and non-medical fields.That the hazards associated with application of radiation are minimised and within acceptable levels.There is no misused of any radioactive materials, nuclear materials, prescribed substances or irradiating apparatus in relation to the prohibition stated in the Act.
7 Atomic Energy Licensing Act 1984 Licensing AuthorityAtomic Energy Licensing Board (AELB) for dealing with ionizing radiation in non-medical applications.Director General of Health for the use of ionizing radiation in medical applications.
8 Atomic Energy Licensing Act 1984 Control and LicensingNo person shall:site, construct or operate a nuclear installation,deal in, possess or dispose of any radioactive material, nuclear material, prescribed substance or irradiating apparatus,unless he is the holder of a valid license issued under section 16(5) by the appropriate authority for such purpose and as specified in the license.
9 Atomic Energy Licensing Act 1984 Condition of LicensesLicenses issued under this Act may be renewed and subjected to such condition as may be imposed by the appropriate authority which may in respect of the conditions imposed by it, add to, vary or revoke such conditions at any time.
10 Atomic Energy Licensing Act 1984 Suspension of LicenseThe appropriate authority may cancel or suspend any license for such period of the following circumstances:The licensee has committed an offence.The licensee has committed a breach of any condition of the licence.The licensee ceases to work or operate the nuclear installation in respect of which the licence was issued.In the opinion of the appropriate authority it would be in the public interest so to do.
11 Atomic Energy Licensing Act 1984 Health and SafetyAct 304 requires licensees to be responsible for the protection of the health and safety of workers by complying with all the regulations/ directives given by the appropriate authority, pertaining to:Conditions of exposureDose limitationOccupational exposureMedical exposureExposure of members of the publicAccidental exposureEmergency exposure and exposure other than any of those specified above
12 Atomic Energy Licensing Act 1984 Licensee is responsible for the worker who have been exposed to ionizing radiation to:Provide and require such workers to wear approved personnel-monitoring devices.Keep records of dose and type of ionizing radiation to which such a worker has been exposed.Install or use monitoring devices in workplace to record the amount of ionizing radiation present.Provide medical examination for such workers at such intervals as the appropriate authority may determine.
13 Atomic Energy Licensing Act 1984 Disposal of Radioactive WasteAny radioactive waste cannot be disposed of, accumulated or transported without prior authorization in writing and subject to such conditions imposed.The appropriate authority may direct the licensee or any person who is responsible for premises, nuclear installation, conveyance or site where any situation or condition endangering life, health, property or the environmental to adopt such measure as would eliminate or protect against such situation or condition.
14 Atomic Energy Licensing Act 1984 OffencesImprisonment for a term not exceeding 10 years or a fine not exceeding RM100,000 or both if there is no penalty is stated.Imprisonment for a term no exceeding 5 years or a fine not exceeding RM5,000 or both (for specific offences under section 39 of the Act).
15 Radiation Protection (Licensing) Regulations 1986 General ConditionsThe applicant shall:employ a person having the necessary knowledge, skill and trainingthe applicant’s proposed equipment, facilities and procedures shall be adequateto protect the health of workers and members of the public and to minimize danger to life, property and the environment.
16 Radiation Protection (Licensing) Regulations 1986 Classification of LicenseClass of LicenceType of MaterialPurposesClass ARadioactive materialto manufacture, trade in, produce, process, purchase, own, possess, use, transfer, handle, sell or storeClass BNuclear material- as above -Class CIrradiating apparatusClass DRadioactive materials, nuclear materials, prescribed substances or their wasteto transportClass ERadioactive materials, nuclear materials, prescribed substances, irradiating apparatus or their wasteto export or importCont…
17 Radiation Protection (Licensing) Regulations 1986 Classification of LicenseClass of LicenceType of MaterialPurposesClass FNuclear installationthe temporary operation stagethe full operation stageto site, to construct or to operateClass Ga) Radioactive materials, nuclear materials, prescribed substances or their wasteto disposeto store (prior to their disposal)b) Milling installation, nuclear installation, waste treatment facility, irradiating apparatus or sealed source apparatusto decommissionClass HOthersto control activities which are not covered by Class A to G
18 Radiation Protection (Licensing) Regulations 1986 Exemption of FeeThe transfer or radioactive materials, nuclear materials, prescribed substances or irradiating apparatus for charitable or non-profit purposes; andAn amendment which does not relate to the class of the licence; or the details of any apparatus, material or installation..
19 Radiation Protection (Basic Safety Standard) Regulations 1988 IntroductionBased on the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) BSS NoCurrently being reviewed to suit the current recommendation of IAEA Safety Series No. 115 and International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) 60.Describe the principles of radiation protection and safety such as, system of dose limitation (justification, optimization), medical exposure, operational radiation protection and role of licensee and radiation worker.
20 Radiation Protection (Basic Safety Standard) Regulations 1988 Dose LimitationNo person shall carry out any activity involving ionizing radiation unless such activity is justified in relation to its benefits and those of any available alternatives.Every licensee shall take steps to restrict the necessary exposure to any person and such exposure shall be as low as is reasonably achievable, economic and social factors being taken into account.The annual dose limits do not apply to medical exposure or exposure due to natural background radiation.
21 Radiation Protection (Basic Safety Standard) Regulations 1988 Occupational ExposureRadiation WorkersFor pregnant worker - the dose to the foetus accumulated over the period of time between confirmation of pregnancy and the date of delivery shall not exceed 10 mSv.PublicAnnual dose limit - 1 mSv
22 Radiation Protection (Basic Safety Standard) Regulations 1988 Medical ExposureNo person shall carry out any:Systematic radiological examination on any person unless there are clear clinical needs and unless such examination is justified, taking into consideration the useful information expected to be obtained and the importance of this information to the person’s health.Radiological examination for occupational purposes unless such examination is necessary for the purpose of evaluating the health of the person examined and his fitness for the work.
23 Radiation Protection (Basic Safety Standard) Regulations 1988 Responsibilities of a LicenseeTo employ a radiation protection officer to assist in managing radiation safety;To classify the working areas into clean, supervised and controlled areas (where appropriate);To ensure that supervised or controlled areas are clearly demarcated, and appropriate and legible notices and warning signs bearing the radiation symbol are posted conspicuously in strategic places in the national language and other language (if necessary);To ensure that operating instructions relevant to the supervised and controlled areas are posted conspicuously in such areas;
24 Radiation Protection (Basic Safety Standard) Regulations 1988 Responsibilities of a LicenseeTo establish programmes for area monitoring in supervised and controlled areas which include:the assessment of external radiation levels at all appropriate locations;the assessment of levels of radioactive contamination at all appropriate locations; andthe assessment of radiation risks associated withaccident or emergency situation.To ensure that personnel dose monitoring for all workers during normal operation, planned special exposure and accidental and emergency exposure are carried out and recorded properly.
25 Radiation Protection (Basic Safety Standard) Regulations 1988 Responsibilities of a LicenseeTo inform each worker of the worker’s personnel monitoring results and radiation exposure status not later than two weeks from the date the results are available.To ensure that the results of personnel monitoring are submitted to the approved registered medical practitioner immediately whenever an accident or emergency occurs.
26 Radiation Protection (Basic Safety Standard) Regulations 1988 Responsibilities of a LicenseeTo carry out medical surveillance for his workers by an approved registered medical practitioner:pre-employment medical examination/ general health surveillance; periodic reviews of health; and medical examination at termination of employment or retirement.
27 Radiation Protection (Basic Safety Standard) Regulations 1988 Responsibilities of a LicenseeTo maintain a medical record for each worker and it shall be kept up to date as long as he remains a worker.To provide appropriate training on radiation protection relevant to his duties.To ensure that all protective measures and devices meet the requirements.To ensure inspection and testing of protective measures and devices, and measuring instruments.
28 Radiation Protection (Basic Safety Standard) Regulations 1988 Responsibilities of a WorkerTo follow all instructions, rules and procedures issued by the licensee.To use all facilities, devices and protective equipment provided by the licensee.To use approved personnel monitoring devices when provided by the licensee for assessing exposure.To report all accidental exposures.To report any damage to or malfunction of any safety equipment.To report such suspected pregnancy to the approved registered medical practitioner if she suspects that she is pregnant.
29 Radiation Protection (Basic Safety Standard) Regulations 1988 Establishment of Emergency PlanThe licensee is required to establish an approved emergency plan for all emergency situation.An emergency plan should include the following:The emergency organization;An outline of the lines of communication with the appropriate authority and relevant public authorities;A classification of emergencies;Measures to be taken during an emergency;Action to be taken subsequently to the emergency;The intervention levels for different emergency situations; andA list and description of the equipment necessary for use during an emergency.
30 Radiation Protection (Basic Safety Standard) Regulations 1988 Reports and DocumentThe licensee may be required to submit to the appropriate authority any or all of the following:a report on area monitoring;a report on environmental monitoring;a report on effluent monitoring;a report on accidental and emergency exposures;operational procedures, instructions and manuals;
31 Radiation Protection (Basic Safety Standard) Regulations 1988 Reports and Documenta report on personnel monitoring;training programmes;physical protection measures;a report by approved registered medical practitioners;emergency plans and procedures; andother reports and records which the appropriate authority deems necessary.
32 Radiation Protection (Transport) Regulations 1989 Scope coversRadioactive materials, Nuclear materials or Prescribed substancesby all modes of transportationLANDWATERIN THE AIR
33 Radiation Protection (Transport) Regulations 1989 Exemptionproducing, using or storing of radioactive materials, nuclear materials or prescribed substances within establishments, other than storage in transit;implanting with radioisotopic cardiac pacemakers or other devices to human beings or treating with radiopharmaceuticals; andas an integral part of a conveyance which radioactive materials, nuclear materials or prescribed substances is used.