2 What is weather?Weather- Conditions in one place over a short period of time.Climate- Conditions in one place over a long period of time.
3 The Greenhouse effectThe Earth’s atmosphere traps some of the heat from the sun and reflects it back to Earth much like the glass ceiling of a green house.
4 Rotation Vs. Revolution Rotation – The spinning of the earth around it’s Axis.Revolution – The movement of the earth around the sun.
5 Solstices Vs. EquinoxSolstice – June 21 and December 21. The days when the sun appears directly above the tropics of Cancer and Capricorn. Summer and winter.Equinox – March 21 and September 23. When the sun is directly over the equator. Vernal (spring) and Autumnal (fall).
7 Distributing the sun’s Heat The heat of the sun is distributed through convection.Warm gases rise and cooler gases fall.In the air, this process is called wind.In the water, this process is called currents.Due to the rotation of the earth, circular patterns are created called the Coriolis Effect.
8 Types of Precipitation Precipitation – Water that falls from earth’s atmosphere (Rain)Convectional PrecipitationOccurs in warm climatesProduces lots of rain which helps to feed lush, tropical rainforests.
9 Types of Precipitation Orographic PrecipitationWarm, moist air is forced upwards over high landforms.As warm ocean air meets mountains, it is forced into cooler air where it condenses and rain or snow falls.The Air is usually dry and cool by the time it reaches the other side of the mountains creating deserts.
10 Types of Precipitation Frontal PrecipitationOccurs when two fronts meet.The warm air is forced upward by the dense cool air.The rising warm air cools and frontal precipitation forms.
11 Other Influences on Climate Nearby bodies of waterHave milder climates since water doesn’t change temperature as much as land doesContinental Climates – Inland areas that have more extreme temperature changes between hot and cold.U.S., China, Central Europe and Northern Eurasia.Minnesota can reach -20⁰ F in the Winter and over 100⁰ F in the summer
12 Other influences on climate ElevationHigher elevation has colder temperatures. That is why there is often snow on the top of mountains.
13 Other Influences on CLimate Nearby LandformsMountains, forests, and even cities can affect the temperature and climate of nearby areas.
14 World Climate RegionsThe Earth can be broken up into 5 types of climate regions.TropicalDryModerateContinentalPolar
16 Changing ClimatesThrough changes in nature and human action, the worlds climates are changing.Many scientists call this change “Global Warming”The earth has cycles of climate changeIce AgeWarmingEarth’s temperature is risingThis creates more extreme weather as the earth tries to balance this out.We are overdue for another ice age.