Presentation on theme: "William Shakespeare (1564-1616) was an English poet and playwright, widely regarded as the greatest writer in the English language and the world’s pre-eminent."— Presentation transcript:
William Shakespeare (1564-1616) was an English poet and playwright, widely regarded as the greatest writer in the English language and the world’s pre-eminent dramatist. His surviving works, including some collaborations, consist of 38 plays, 154 sonnets, two long narrative poems and several other poems. His plays have been translated into every major living language and are performed more often than those of any other playright.
William Shakespeare was the son of John Shakespeare, a successful glover and alderman originally from Snitterfield, and Mary Arden, the daughter of an affluent landowning farmer. He was born in Stratford-upon- Avon and baptised on 26 April 1564. His actual birthdate is unknown, but is traditionally observed on 23 April, St George’s Day. He was the third child of eight and the eldest surviving son. John Shakespeare’s house, believed to be Shakespeare’s birthplace, in Stratford-upon-Avon.
There are no specific records relating to the education of William Shakespeare or his attendance at school but reasonable assumptions can be made based on the information that is available. Shakespeare probably started his education between the ages of 5 and 7 years old at the “Petty School”. Then he would have attended King Edward IV Grammar School in Stratford-upon-Avon from the age of 7 in 1571 and left school and formal education when he was fourteen in 1578 due to his father’s finacial problems. King Edward IV Grammar School is also referred to as the King's New School as it was named according to a charter by King Edward VI (Queen Elizabeth's younger brother) in 1553.
Elizabethan boys were at first sent to a 'Petty School' between the ages of 5 and 7 years old to start their education. Petty Schools were run by a local housewife and were often referred to as 'Dame Schools'. Petty School education would have consisted of being taught lessons in behaviour and to learn the catechism. The early education of William Shakespeare would include respecting his mother and father, asking his parents blessing, rising early in the morning and saying his prayers. The early education of William Shakespeare relating to basic manners would have included learning table manners such as eating small morsels, chewing properly, using a knife and using a napkin!
The Grammar School education of William Shakespeare would have included Latin taught from the Tudor text-book known as Lily's Latin Grammar and boys would be expected to translate Latin to English and English to Latin. The education of William Shakespeare continued by studying the works of the great classical authors and dramatists such as Ovid, Plautus, Horace, Virgil, Cicero and Seneca. The Punishments were severe and painful. Fifty strokes of the cane was not uncommon! King Edward IV Grammar School in Stratford-upon-Avon.
At the age of 18, Shakespeare married the 26-year-old Anne Hathaway. The consistory court of the Diocese of Worcester issued a marriage licence on 27 November 1582. The couple may have arranged the ceremony in some haste, since the Worcester chancellor allowed the marriage banns to be read once instead of the usual three times. [ Anne's pregnancy could have been the reason for this. Six months after the marriage, she gave birth to a daughter, Susanna. [ Twins, son Hamnet and daughter Judith, followed almost two years later. Hamnet died of unknown causes at the age of 11. Afterwards there are few historical traces of Shakespeare until he is mentioned as part of the London theatre scene in 1592. Because of this gap, scholars refer to the years between 1585 and 1592 as Shakespeare's "lost years". Biographers attempting to account for this period have reported many apocryphal stories.
In 1614 Shakespeare retired to Stratford, but he continued to visit London. He died on 23 April 1616 and was survived by his wife and two daughters. Susanna had married a physician, John Hall, in 1607, and Judith had married Thomas Quiney, a vintner two months before Shakespeare’s death. Shakespeare’s funerary monument in Stratford-upon-Avon.
The Quineys had three children, all of whom died without marrying. The Halls had one child, Elizabeth, who married twice but died without children in 1670, ending Shakespeare’s direct line. Shakespeare was buried in the chancel of the Holy Trinity Church two days after his death. He has been commemorated in many statues and memorials around the world. Shakespeare’s grave.