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Adolescence= period between normal onset of puberty and the beginning of adulthood. Puberty= physical maturing that makes an individual capable of sexual.

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Presentation on theme: "Adolescence= period between normal onset of puberty and the beginning of adulthood. Puberty= physical maturing that makes an individual capable of sexual."— Presentation transcript:

1 Adolescence= period between normal onset of puberty and the beginning of adulthood.
Puberty= physical maturing that makes an individual capable of sexual reproduction. The period of adolescence is NOT universal. Puberty is, though. In the U.S. adolescence generally falls between ages 12 to 19. Adolescence

2 In many pre-industrial societies, young people go straight from childhood to adulthood, simply by completing a ceremony. Fairly recent concept in the United States as well. Did not evolve until after the Civil War. Three factors shaping development of adolescence: Education children remaining in school until age 16. Exclusion of youth from labor force child labor laws stating that children under a certain age cannot work. Creation of the juvenile-justice system. Adolescence (cont’d)

3 Characteristics of Adolescence
Biological Growth and Development Changes in height, body proportions and other physical traits. Undefined Status Vague societal expectations; in some instances adolescents are treated as children, in other instances as adults. Increased Decision Making Increased Pressure Balance family, school, work and the expectations of each The Search for Self What is important; who do you want to be? - Anticipatory socialization= learning rights, obligations and expectations of a role to prepare for assuming that role in the future. Characteristics of Adolescence

4 Adolescents Challenges
Chapter 6, Section 3

5 Adolescent Challenges
Teenage Sexual Behavior Birth control of 1960s and 1970s led to a ‘sexual revolution’ Teenage pregnancy rates have been declining since 1991; 26.5 per 1,000 adolescents today. (Still higher than most developed countries) Influences: family dynamics (one-parent vs. two-parent households); peer pressure; influence of religion Consequences: lower birth weights in babies; less likely to finish education/pursue higher education; lower incomes; emotional stress for mothers Adolescent Challenges

6 Adolescent Challenges
Teenage Drug Use Drug= any substance that changes mood, behavior, or consciousness. Increase in drug-related crime. Influences: societal pressures peer, media; family dynamics Consequences: biological impacts; prison; increased media attention (anti-drug campaigns) Adolescent Challenges

7 Adolescent Challenges
Teenage Suicide 3rd leading cause of death in individuals between 10 and 24. More males than females die as a result of suicide. Females more likely to attempt suicide. Social integration= degree of attachment people have to social groups or to society as a whole. Influences/Predictors: alcohol/drug use; triggering events; population density (higher density= less suicides); family dynamics; ‘cluster effects’. Consequences: death; social stigma; medical expenses; emotional distress Adolescent Challenges

8 Teenagers and Dating Chapter 6, Section 2

9 Interaction between men and women prior to the rise of dating is known as courtship.
Its express purpose is marriage. The process is a continuum– it steadily progresses, and can stop at any time. Courtship has not always been this flexible. It was not as ‘casual’ as dating is today. Roles were strictly defined. Main purpose: FIND A SPOUSE!!! Courtship and dating

10 The Emergence of Dating (5 factors)
Dating (the meeting of people for romantic engagement) emerged due to the following factors: Industrial Revolution—People moved from the farms to the cities where young adults could gain more economic freedom and establish their own homes. As a result, parental control over young adults and courtship decreased. Public Education—By the 1900s, most secondary school students attended coeducational public schools which increased interaction between boys and girls. The Emergence of Dating (5 factors)

11 The Emergence of Dating (5 factors)
Automobile—Young adults had more freedom of movement without their parents. Telephone—Young adults could more easily talk to members of the opposite sex. Equality of Women—More women entered the workforce and took on active community roles, which increased the interaction between single adult men and women. The Emergence of Dating (5 factors)

12 In dating, as in other institutions, homogamy plays a large role.
Homogamy= tendency of individuals to marry people who have social characteristics similar to their own. Heterogamy= marriage between individuals with different social characteristics. Where can this *idea* of homogamy also be seen in society??? Role of homogamy

13 Dating serves several important functions in adolescence.
Serves as a form of entertainment Is a means of socialization that teaches people about the opposite sex and social situations Helps teach role behaviors and define self-concepts Fills psychological needs such as companionship Helps individuals attain status, as people are judged in part by whom they date Aids in spouse selection So… why date?

14 Willard Waller’s Study
In the 1920s/1930s, Willard Waller conducted a study of students on the campus of Penn State University. He found that for most of them, dating was mainly a form of entertainment and for social status. Most of the ‘dating’ was within the individuals who were in fraternities and sororities. Willard Waller’s Study

15 Dating Patterns: Traditional
Traditional Dating Patters Man is responsible for arranging the date. Rules of conduct were well-defined, and there was a pressure to conform. In the early stages of dating, there were certain set activities in order to lessen stress. As it progressed to ‘steady dating’ there was generally a visible sign of commitment. Dating Patterns: Traditional

16 Dating patterns- Contemporary
Contemporary Dating Patterns Ever since the 1960s, dating patterns have not been as formalized. No set stages of dating. Greater equality and flexibility. Dating is based more on friendship and the group than on the couple. Dating patterns- Contemporary

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