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Gunawan Wibisono Dept Teknik Elektro FTUI

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1 Gunawan Wibisono Dept Teknik Elektro FTUI
Chapter 2 Wireless Network (Review) Gunawan Wibisono Dept Teknik Elektro FTUI

2 Agenda Introduction GSM UMTS/IMT-2000 3G and 4G
Satellite Communications

3 Wireless Communication System
Channel code word Source Encoder Channel Mod- ulator Message Signal Modulated Transmitted Signal Communication Channel User Source Decoder Channel Demod- ulator Estimate of Message signal channel code word Received Signal Z. Ghassemlooy

4 Communication Channels
A channel is a path between two communication devices Channel capacity: How much data can be passed through the channel (bit/sec) Also called channel bandwidth The smaller the pipe the slower data transfer! Consists of one or more transmission media Materials carrying the signal Two types: Physical: wire cable Wireless: Air destination network server T1 lines T3 lines

5 Physical Transmission Media
A tangible media Examples: Twisted-pair cable, coaxial cable, Fiber-optics, etc. Twisted-pair cable: One or more twisted wires bundled together (why?) Made of copper Coax-Cable: Consists of single copper wire surrounded by three layers of insulating and metal materials Typically used for cable TV Fiber-optics: Strands of glass or plastic used to transmit light Very high capacity, low noise, small size, less suitable to natural disturbances

6 Physical Transmission Media
plastic outer coating woven or braided metal insulating material copper wire twisted-pair cable twisted-pair wire protective coating glass cladding optical fiber core

7 Wireless Transmission Media
Broadcast Radio Distribute signals through the air over long distance Uses an antenna Typically for stationary locations Can be short range Cellular Radio A form of broadcast radio used for mobile communication High frequency radio waves to transmit voice or data Utilizes frequency-reuse

8 Wireless Transmission Media
Microwaves Radio waves providing high speed transmission They are point-to-point (can’t be obstructed) Used for satellite communication Infrared (IR) Wireless transmission media that sends signals using infrared light- waves - Such as?

9 Physical Transmission Media
Wireless channel capacity: 100 Mbps is how many bits per sec? Which is bigger: 10,000 Mbps, 0.01Tbps or 10Gbps?

10 Networks Collection of communication systems connected together
used to transfer information (voice, data, datagram, video), share resources, etc. What is the largest network? Characterized based on their geographical coverage, speed, capacities Networks are categorized based on the following characteristics: Network coverage: LAN, MAN, WAN Network topologies: how the communication systems are connected together Network technologies Network architecture

11 Network Coverage Segmentasi Pengguna Wireless
Segmentation of wireless user

12 Network Coverage Local Area Networks:
Used for small networks (school, home, office) Examples and configurations: Wireless LAN or Switched LAN ATM LAN, Frame Ethernet LAN Peer-2-PEER: connecting several computers together (<10) Client/Server: The serves shares its resources between different clients Metropolitan Area Network Backbone network connecting all LANs Can cover a city or the entire country Wide Area Network Typically between cities and countries Technology: Circuit Switch, Packet Switch, Frame Relay, ATM Examples: Internet P2P: Networks with the same network software can be connected together (Napster)

13 LAN v.s WAN LAN - Local Area Network a group of computers connected within a building or a campus (Example of LAN may consist of computers located on a single floor or a building or it might link all the computers in a small company. WAN - A network consisting of computers of LAN's connected across a distance WAN can cover small to large distances, using different topologies such as telephone lines, fiber optic cabling, satellite transmissions and microwave transmissions.

14 Network Topologies Configuration or physical arrangement in which devices are connected together BUS networks: Single central cable connected a number of devices Easy and cheap Popular for LANs RING networks: a number of computers are connected on a closed loop Covers large distances Primarily used for LANs and WANs STAR networks: connecting all devices to a central unit All computers are connected to a central device called hub All data must pass through the hub What is the problem with this? Susceptible to failure

15 Network Topologies personal computer personal computer host computer
printer file server personal computer

16 Network Architecture Refers to how the computer or devices are designed in a network Basic types: Centralized – using mainframes Peer-2-Peer: Each computer (peer) has equal responsibilities, capacities, sharing hardware, data, with the other computers on the peer-to-peer network Good for small businesses and home networks Simple and inexpensive Client/Server: All clients must request service from the server The server is also called a host Different servers perform different tasks: File server, network server, etc. client server laser printer

17 (Data) Network Technologies
Vary depending on the type of devices we use for interconnecting computers and devices together Ethernet: LAN technology allowing computers to access the network Susceptible to collision Can be based on BUS or STAR topologies Operates at 10Mbps or 100Mbps, (10/100) Fast Ethernet operates at 100 Mbps Gigabit Ethernet (1998 IEEE 802.3z) 10-Gigabit Ethernet (10GE or 10GbE or 10 GigE) 10GBASE-R/LR/SR (long range short range, etc.) Physical layer Gigabit Ethernet using optical fiber, twisted pair cable, or balanced copper cable

18 (Data) Network Technologies
Token Ring LAN technology Only the computer with the token can transmit No collision Typically devices can be connected together TCP/IP and UDP Uses packet transmission 802.11 Standard for wireless LAN Wi-Fi (wireless fidelity) is used to describe that the device is in family or standards Typically used for long range ( feet) Variations include: .11 (1-2 Mbps); .11a (up to 54 Mbps); .11b (up to 11 Mbps); .11g (54 Mbps and higher

19 (Data) Network Technologies
Next generation wireless LAN technology Improving network throughput (600 Mbps compared to 450 Mbps) – thus potentially supporting a user throughput of 110 Mbit/s WiMAX Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access Provides wireless transmission of data from point-to-multipoint links to portable and fully mobile internet access (up to 3 Mbit/s) The intent is to deliver the last mile wireless broadband access as an alternative to cable and DSL Based on the IEEE (d/e) standard (also called Broadband Wireless Access)

20 Network Technologies Personal area network (PAN)
A low range computer network PANs can be used for communication among the personal devices themselves Wired with computer buses such as USB and FireWire. Wireless personal area network (WPAN) Uses network technologies such as IrDA, Bluetooth, UWB, Z-Wave and ZigBee Internet Mobile Protocols Supporting multimedia Internet traffic IGMP & MBONE for multicasting RTP, RTCP, & RSVP (used to handle multimedia on the Internet) VoIP RTP: Real-time Transport Protocol

21 Network Technologies Zigbee Bluetooth IrDA RFID WAP
High level communication protocols using small, low-power digital radios based on the IEEE Wireless mesh networking proprietary standard Bluetooth Uses radio frequency Typically used for close distances (short range- 33 feet or so) Transmits at 1Mbps Used for handheld computers to communicate with the desktop IrDA Infrared (IR) light waves Transfers at a rate of 115 Kbps to 4 Mbps Requires light-of-sight transmission RFID Radio frequency identification Uses tags which are places in items Example: merchandises, toll-tags, courtesy calls, sensors! WAP Wireless application protocol Data rate of kbps depending on the service type Used for smart phones and PDAs to access the Internet ( , web, etc)

22 Network Examples IEEE 802.15.4 Intranets Home networks
Low-rate wireless personal area networks (LR-WPANs) Bases for e ZigBee, WirelessHART, and MiWi specification Also used for 6LoWPAN and standard Internet protocols to build a Wireless Embedded Internet (WEI) Intranets Used for private networks May implement a firewall Hardware and software that restricts access to data and information on a network Home networks Ethernet Phone line HomeRF (radio frequency- waves) Intelligent home network Vehicle-to-Vehicle (car2Car) - A wireless LAN based communication system to guarantee European-wide inter-vehicle operability Car2Car Technology:

23 Network Examples Interplanetary (Internet) Network

24 Network Example: Telephone Networks
Called the Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN) World-wide and voice oriented (handles voice and data) Data/voice can be transferred within the PSTN using different technologies (data transfer rate bps) Dial-up lines: Analog signals passing through telephone lines Requires modems (56 kbps transfer rate) ISDN lines: Integrated Services Digital Network Digital transmission over the telephone lines Can carry (multiplex) several signals on a single line DSL Digital subscribe line ADSL (asymmetric DSL) receiver operated at 8.4 Mbps, transmit at 640 kbps T-Carrier lines: carries several signals over a single line: T1,T3 Frame Relay ATM: Asynchronous Transfer Mode Fast and high capacity transmitting technology Packet technology Switching Technologies: Technologies: Circuit Switching Packet Switching Message Switching Burst Switching

25 Network Examples

26 Public Telephone Network What about Cable Internet Services?
Network Examples Public Telephone Network T-Carrier Dedicated Lines Dail-up DSL ISDN ATM What about Cable Internet Services?

27 Network Example: Optical Networks
Fiber-to-the-x Broadband network architecture that uses optical fiber to replace copper Used for last mile telecommunications Examples: Fiber-to-the-home (FTTH); Fiber-to-the-building (FTTB); Fiber-to-the premises (FTTP) Fiber Distribution Network (reaching different customers) Active optical networks (AONs) Passive optical networks (PONs)

28 Network Example Smart Grid
Delivering electricity from suppliers to consumers using digital technology to save energy Storage Area Networks Computational Grid Networks

29 Network Example: Telephone Networks

30 Cellular Network Examples
0G Single, powerful base station covering a wide area, and each telephone would effectively monopolize a channel over that whole area while in use (developed in 40’s) No frequency use or handoff (basis of modern cell phone technology) 1G Fully automatic cellular networks introduced in the early to mid 1980s 2G Introduced in 1991 in Finland on the GSM standard Offered the first data service with person-to-person SMS text messaging

31 Cellular Network Examples
3G: Faster than PCS; Used for multimedia and graphics Compared to 2G and 2.5G services, 3G allows simultaneous use of speech and data services and higher data rates (up to 14.4 Mbit/s on the downlink and 5.8 Mbit/s. 4G: Fourth generation of cellular wireless; providing a comprehensive and secure IP based service to users "Anytime, Anywhere" at high data rates

32 GSM: Overview GSM formerly: Groupe Spéciale Mobile (founded 1982)
now: Global System for Mobile Communication Pan-European standard (ETSI, European Telecommunications Standardisation Institute) simultaneous introduction of essential services in three phases (1991, 1994, 1996) by the European telecommunication administrations (Germany: D1 and D2)  seamless roaming within Europe possible today many providers all over the world use GSM (more than 130 countries in Asia, Africa, Europe, Australia, America) more than 100 million subscribers

33 Performance characteristics of GSM
Communication mobile, wireless communication; support for voice and data services Total mobility international access, chip-card enables use of access points of different providers Worldwide connectivity one number, the network handles localization High capacity better frequency efficiency, smaller cells, more customers per cell High transmission quality high audio quality and reliability for wireless, uninterrupted phone calls at higher speeds (e.g., from cars, trains) Security functions access control, authentication via chip-card and PIN

34 Disadvantages of GSM There is no perfect system!!
no end-to-end encryption of user data no full ISDN bandwidth of 64 kbit/s to the user, no transparent B-channel reduced concentration while driving electromagnetic radiation abuse of private data possible roaming profiles accessible high complexity of the system several incompatibilities within the GSM standards

35 GSM: Mobile Services GSM offers Three service domains
several types of connections voice connections, data connections, short message service multi-service options (combination of basic services) Three service domains Bearer Services Telematic Services Supplementary Services bearer services MS GSM-PLMN transit network (PSTN, ISDN) source/ destination network TE MT TE R, S Um (U, S, R) tele services

36 Bearer Services Telecommunication services to transfer data between access points Specification of services up to the terminal interface (OSI layers 1-3) Different data rates for voice and data (original standard) data service (circuit switched) synchronous: 2.4, 4.8 or 9.6 kbit/s asynchronous: bit/s data service (packet switched) asynchronous: bit/s

37 Tele Services I Telecommunication services that enable voice communication via mobile phones All these basic services have to obey cellular functions, security measurements etc. Offered services mobile telephony primary goal of GSM was to enable mobile telephony offering the traditional bandwidth of 3.1 kHz Emergency number common number throughout Europe (112); mandatory for all service providers; free of charge; connection with the highest priority (preemption of other connections possible) Multinumbering several ISDN phone numbers per user possible

38 Tele Services II Additional services Non-Voice-Teleservices
group 3 fax voice mailbox (implemented in the fixed network supporting the mobile terminals) electronic mail (MHS, Message Handling System, implemented in the fixed network) ... Short Message Service (SMS) alphanumeric data transmission to/from the mobile terminal using the signaling channel, thus allowing simultaneous use of basic services and SMS

39 Supplementary services
Services in addition to the basic services, cannot be offered stand-alone Similar to ISDN services besides lower bandwidth due to the radio link May differ between different service providers, countries and protocol versions Important services identification: forwarding of caller number suppression of number forwarding automatic call-back conferencing with up to 7 participants locking of the mobile terminal (incoming or outgoing calls) ...

40 Architecture of the GSM system
GSM is a PLMN (Public Land Mobile Network) several providers setup mobile networks following the GSM standard within each country components MS (mobile station) BS (base station) MSC (mobile switching center) LR (location register) subsystems RSS (radio subsystem): covers all radio aspects NSS (network and switching subsystem): call forwarding, handover, switching OSS (operation subsystem): management of the network

41 GSM: overview OMC, EIR, AUC fixed network HLR GMSC NSS with OSS VLR

42 GSM: elements and interfaces

43 GSM: system architecture
radio subsystem network and switching subsystem fixed partner networks MS MS ISDN PSTN Um MSC Abis BTS BSC EIR BTS SS7 HLR VLR BTS BSC ISDN PSTN BTS A MSC BSS IWF PSPDN CSPDN

44 System architecture: radio subsystem
network and switching subsystem MS MS Components MS (Mobile Station) BSS (Base Station Subsystem): consisting of BTS (Base Transceiver Station): sender and receiver BSC (Base Station Controller): controlling several transceivers Interfaces Um : radio interface Abis : standardized, open interface with 16 kbit/s user channels A: standardized, open interface with 64 kbit/s user channels Um Abis BTS BSC MSC BTS A BTS MSC BSC BTS BSS

45 System architecture: network and switching subsystem
network subsystem fixed partner networks Components MSC (Mobile Services Switching Center): IWF (Interworking Functions) ISDN (Integrated Services Digital Network) PSTN (Public Switched Telephone Network) PSPDN (Packet Switched Public Data Net.) CSPDN (Circuit Switched Public Data Net.) Databases HLR (Home Location Register) VLR (Visitor Location Register) EIR (Equipment Identity Register) ISDN PSTN MSC EIR SS7 HLR VLR ISDN PSTN MSC IWF PSPDN CSPDN

46 Radio subsystem The Radio Subsystem (RSS) comprises the cellular mobile network up to the switching centers Components Base Station Subsystem (BSS): Base Transceiver Station (BTS): radio components including sender, receiver, antenna - if directed antennas are used one BTS can cover several cells Base Station Controller (BSC): switching between BTSs, controlling BTSs, managing of network resources, mapping of radio channels (Um) onto terrestrial channels (A interface) BSS = BSC + sum(BTS) + interconnection Mobile Stations (MS)

47 GSM: cellular network segmentation of the area into cells
possible radio coverage of the cell idealized shape of the cell use of several carrier frequencies not the same frequency in adjoining cells cell sizes vary from some 100 m up to 35 km depending on user density, geography, transceiver power etc. hexagonal shape of cells is idealized (cells overlap, shapes depend on geography) if a mobile user changes cells  handover of the connection to the neighbor cell

48 Base Transceiver Station and Base Station Controller
Tasks of a BSS are distributed over BSC and BTS BTS comprises radio specific functions BSC is the switching center for radio channels

49 Mobile station Terminal for the use of GSM services
A mobile station (MS) comprises several functional groups MT (Mobile Terminal): offers common functions used by all services the MS offers corresponds to the network termination (NT) of an ISDN access end-point of the radio interface (Um) TA (Terminal Adapter): terminal adaptation, hides radio specific characteristics TE (Terminal Equipment): peripheral device of the MS, offers services to a user does not contain GSM specific functions SIM (Subscriber Identity Module): personalization of the mobile terminal, stores user parameters R S Um TE TA MT

50 Network and switching subsystem
NSS is the main component of the public mobile network GSM switching, mobility management, interconnection to other networks, system control Components Mobile Services Switching Center (MSC) controls all connections via a separated network to/from a mobile terminal within the domain of the MSC - several BSC can belong to a MSC Databases (important: scalability, high capacity, low delay) Home Location Register (HLR) central master database containing user data, permanent and semi-permanent data of all subscribers assigned to the HLR (one provider can have several HLRs) Visitor Location Register (VLR) local database for a subset of user data, including data about all user currently in the domain of the VLR

51 Mobile Services Switching Center
The MSC (mobile switching center) plays a central role in GSM switching functions additional functions for mobility support management of network resources interworking functions via Gateway MSC (GMSC) integration of several databases Functions of a MSC specific functions for paging and call forwarding termination of SS7 (signaling system no. 7) mobility specific signaling location registration and forwarding of location information provision of new services (fax, data calls) support of short message service (SMS) generation and forwarding of accounting and billing information

52 Operation subsystem The OSS (Operation Subsystem) enables centralized operation, management, and maintenance of all GSM subsystems Components Authentication Center (AUC) generates user specific authentication parameters on request of a VLR authentication parameters used for authentication of mobile terminals and encryption of user data on the air interface within the GSM system Equipment Identity Register (EIR) registers GSM mobile stations and user rights stolen or malfunctioning mobile stations can be locked and sometimes even localized Operation and Maintenance Center (OMC) different control capabilities for the radio subsystem and the network subsystem

53 GSM protocol layers for signaling
Um Abis A MS BTS BSC MSC CM CM MM MM RR’ BTSM BSSAP RR BSSAP RR’ BTSM SS7 SS7 LAPDm LAPDm LAPD LAPD radio radio PCM PCM PCM PCM 16/64 kbit/s 64 kbit/s / 2.048 Mbit/s

54 Security in GSM Security services 3 algorithms specified in GSM
access control/authentication user  SIM (Subscriber Identity Module): secret PIN (personal identification number) SIM  network: challenge response method confidentiality voice and signaling encrypted on the wireless link (after successful authentication) anonymity temporary identity TMSI (Temporary Mobile Subscriber Identity) newly assigned at each new location update (LUP) encrypted transmission 3 algorithms specified in GSM A3 for authentication (“secret”, open interface) A5 for encryption (standardized) A8 for key generation (“secret”, open interface) “secret”: A3 and A8 available via the Internet network providers can use stronger mechanisms

55 Data services in GSM I Data transmission standardized with only 9.6 kbit/s advanced coding allows 14,4 kbit/s not enough for Internet and multimedia applications HSCSD (High-Speed Circuit Switched Data) already standardized bundling of several time-slots to get higher AIUR (Air Interface User Rate) (e.g., 57.6 kbit/s using 4 slots, 14.4 each) advantage: ready to use, constant quality, simple disadvantage: channels blocked for voice transmission

56 Data services in GSM II GPRS (General Packet Radio Service)
packet switching using free slots only if data packets ready to send (e.g., 115 kbit/s using 8 slots temporarily) standardization 1998, introduction 2000? advantage: one step towards UMTS, more flexible disadvantage: more investment needed GPRS network elements GSN (GPRS Support Nodes): GGSN and SGSN GGSN (Gateway GSN) interworking unit between GPRS and PDN (Packet Data Network) SGSN (Serving GSN) supports the MS (location, billing, security) GR (GPRS Register) user addresses

57 GPRS quality of service

58 GPRS architecture and interfaces

59 GPRS protocol architecture

60 DECT DECT (Digital European Cordless Telephone) standardized by ETSI (ETS x) for cordless telephones standard describes air interface between base-station and mobile phone DECT has been renamed for international marketing reasons into „Digital Enhanced Cordless Telecommunication“ Characteristics frequency: MHz channels: 120 full duplex duplex mechanism: TDD (Time Division Duplex) with 10 ms frame length multplexing scheme: FDMA with 10 carrier frequencies, TDMA with 2x 12 slots modulation: digital, Gaußian Minimum Shift Key (GMSK) power: 10 mW average (max. 250 mW) range: ca 50 m in buildings, 300 m open space

61 DECT system architecture reference model
VDB D2 PA PT FT local network HDB PA PT D1 global network FT local network

62 UMTS and IMT-2000 Proposals for IMT-2000 (International Mobile Telecommunications) UWC-136, cdma2000, WP-CDMA UMTS (Universal Mobile Telecommunications System) from ETSI UMTS UTRA (UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access) enhancements of GSM EDGE (Enhanced Data rates for GSM Evolution): GSM up to 384 kbit/s CAMEL (Customized Application for Mobile Enhanced Logic) VHE (virtual Home Environment) fits into GMM (Global Multimedia Mobility) initiative from ETSI requirements min. 144 kbit/s rural (goal: 384 kbit/s) min. 384 kbit/s suburban (goal: 512 kbit/s) up to 2 Mbit/s city

63 UMTS architecture UTRAN (UTRA Network) UE (User Equipment)
cell level mobility Radio Network Subsystem (RNS) UE (User Equipment) CN (Core Network) inter system handover Uu Iu UE UTRAN CN

64 UMTS FDD frame structure
W-CDMA MHz uplink MHz downlink chipping rate: Mchip/s soft handover localization of MS (ca. 20 m precision) complex power control (1600 power control cycles/s) superframe 720 ms 1 2 ... 69 70 71 frame 10 ms 1 2 ... 13 14 15 slot 625 µs pilot TPC TFI uplink DPCCH 625 µs data uplink DPDCH 625 µs pilot TPC TFI data downlink DPCH DPCCH DPDCH TPC: Transmit Power Control TFI: Transport Format Identifier DPCCH: Dedicated Physical Control Channel DPDCH: Dedicated Physical Data Channel DPCH: Dedicated Physical Channel

65 UMTS TDD frame structure
10 ms 1 2 ... 13 14 15 slot 625 µs data midample data GP traffic burst GP: Guard Period W-TDMA/CDMA 2560 chips per slot symmetric or asymmetric slot assignment to up/downlink tight synchronization needed simpler power control ( power control cycles/s)

66 3G and 4G : Generation timeline

67 Wireless Technologies – WiMAX Positioning
Background Degree of mobility UMTS Driving CDMA Systems beyond 3G >2010 GSM GPRS Walking HSDPA EV-DO EV-DV EDGE IEEE e FlashOFDM (802.20) Standing DECT WLAN (IEEE x) IEEE a,d BlueTooth 0.1 1 10 100 Mbps User data rate Wireless Technologies – WiMAX Positioning

68 Background WiMAX Standar IEEE Broadband Wireless Access Delivers > 1 Mbps per user Jarak jangkauan hingga 50 km Penggunaan adaptive modulation dapat mengatasi data rate yang bervariasi Dapat beroperasi pada non-line of site (NLOS) 1.5 to 20 MHz channels Mendukung sessions per channel yang efisien Beroperasi pada licensed and unlicensed spectrum QoS untuk voice, video, and T1/E1

69 Background

70 Background

71 Background Why WiMAX Tingginya permintaan akses internet kecepatan tinggi Infrastruktur yang ada masih belum mencukupi Penggunaan GPRS/3G, user memerlukan perangkat yang lebih canggih Penggelaran WiMAX yang relatif murah

72 Mendukung coverage yang luas, outdoors maupun indoor
Background Mengapa WiMAX Solusi BWA pada harga yang murah (satu standar global, beroperasi pada lisensi dan non lisensi) Mendukung coverage yang luas, outdoors maupun indoor Menghasilkan “new business opportunities” untuk BWA di negara berkembang dan rural area Komplemen solusi jaringan selular 2G/3G Komplemen solusi jaringan Wireless LAN & WAN

73 Position WiMAX

74 Position WiMAX

75 Evolution WiMAX Technologies
LOS & NLOS Mobile Seamless Handover Portable Hot Zone Session continuity Nomadic Hot Zone No Handover Fixed Wireless DSL Wireless PC Portability with Simple Mobility Feeder SME/SOHO Access Wireless DSL WirelessDSL Hot Zone Nomadicity Wireless PC Full-Mobility

76 Standards for Business
Evolution WiMAX Technologies Protocol test suite Contributions to air interface base specs Define regulatory requirements WiMax Forum Standards for Business Air interface base specs Mobility extension Management specs Marketing and promotion Certification Network interface specs

77 Evolution WiMAX Technologies
a line-of-sight (LOS) capability point to multipoint Broadband Wireless LMDS (Local Multipoint Distribution Service) (10–66 GHz band) a single carrier (SC) physical (PHY) standard a non-line-of-sight (NLOS) capability Mobile WiMAX point to multipoint capability in the 2–11 GHz band Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplex (OFDM) and Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access (OFDMA) Scalable OFDMA (SOFDMA) Advanced antenna diversity schemes, and hybrid automatic repeat-request (HARQ) Adaptive Antenna Systems (AAS) and MIMO technology Denser sub-channelization, thereby improving indoor penetration Introducing Turbo Coding and Low-Density Parity Check (LDPC)

78 Evolution WiMAX Technologies
Standard Description Status Fixed Broadband Wireless Access (10–63 GHz) Superseded Recommended practice for coexistence 802.16c-2002 System profiles for 10–63 GHz 802.16a-2003 Physical layer and MAC definitions for 2–11 GHz P802.16b License-exempt frequencies (Project withdrawn) Withdrawn P802.16d Maintenance and System profiles for 2–11 GHz (Project merged into ) Merged Air Interface for Fixed Broadband Wireless Access System (rollup of , a, c and P802.16d) P a Coexistence with 2–11 GHz and 23.5–43.5 GHz (Project merged into ) Recommended practice for coexistence (Maintenance and rollup of and P a) Current Evolution WiMAX Technologies

79 Evolution WiMAX Technologies 802.16f-2005
Standard Description Status 802.16f-2005 Management Information Base (MIB) for Superseded /Cor Corrections for fixed operations (co-published with e-2005) 802.16e-2005 Mobile Broadband Wireless Access System 802.16k-2007 Bridging of (an amendment to IEEE 802.1D) Current 802.16g-2007 Management Plane Procedures and Services P802.16i Mobile Management Information Base (Project merged into ) Merged Air Interface for Fixed and Mobile Broadband Wireless Access System (rollup of , /Cor 1, e, f, g and P802.16i) 802.16j-2009 Multihop relay 802.16h-2010 Improved Coexistence Mechanisms for License-Exempt Operation P802.16m Advanced Air Interface with data rates of 100 Mbit/s mobile & 1 Gbit/s fixed In Progress P802.16n Higher Reliability Networks Evolution WiMAX Technologies

80 WiMAX Architecture System Parameters

81 Universität Karlsruhe Institut für Telematik
WiMAX Architecture Physical layer Mobilkommunikation SS 1998 A pre-WiMAX CPE of a 26 km (16 mi) connection mounted 13 metres (43 ft) above the ground (2004, Lithuania). WiMAX base station equipment with a sector antenna and wireless modem on top A WiMAX Gateway which provides VoIP, Ethernet and WiFi connectivity A WiMAX USB modem for mobile internet Illustration of a WiMAX MIMO board Prof. Dr. Dr. h.c. G. Krüger E. Dorner / Dr. J. Schiller

82 OFDM – Modulation for High Data Rate
85 WiMAX Forum Technology OFDM – Modulation for High Data Rate

83 WiMAX Forum Technology MIMO Configuration

84 WiMAX Forum Technology MIMO Concept

85 WiMAX Architecture MAC (data link) layer- Technology
The WiMAX MAC uses a scheduling algorithm for which the subscriber station needs to compete only once for initial entry into the network. In addition to being stable under overload and over-subscription, the scheduling algorithm can also be more bandwidth efficient. The scheduling algorithm also allows the base station to control Quality of service (QoS) parameters by balancing the time-slot assignments among the application needs of the subscriber stations.

86 Comparison of Mobile Internet Access methods Standard Family
Primary Use Radio Tech Downlink (Mbit/s) Uplink (Mbit/s) Notes LTE UMTS/4GS M General 4G OFDMA/MIMO/SC- FDMA 360 80 LTE-Advanced update expected to offer peak rates of at least 1 Gbit/s fixed speeds and 100 Mbit/s to mobile users. WiMAX 802.16e Mobile Internet MIMO-SOFDMA 144 35 WiMAX update IEEE m expected offer up to 1 Gbit/s fixed speeds. Flash-OFDM Flash- OFDM Mobile Internet mobility up to 200mph (350km/h) Mobile range 18miles (30km) extended range 34 miles (55km) HIPERMAN OFDM 56.9 Wi-Fi (11n) Mobile Internet OFDM/MIMO (Supports 40MHz channel width) Antenna, RF front end enhancements and minor protocol timer tweaks have helped deploy long range P2P networks compromising on radial coverage, throughput and/or spectra efficiency (310km & 382km). iBurst 802.20 HC- SDMA/TDD/MIMO 95 36 Cell Radius: 3–12 km Speed: 250kmph Spectral Efficiency: 13 bits/s/Hz/cell Spectrum Reuse Factor: "1" EDGE Evolution GSM TDMA/FDD 1.9 0.9 3GPP Release 7 UMTS W-CDMA HSDPA+HSUPA HSPA+ UMTS/3GS M General 3G CDMA/FDD CDMA/FDD/MIMO HSDPA widely deployed. Typical downlink rates today 2 Mbit/s, ~200 kbit/s uplink; HSPA+ downlink up to 56 Mbit/s. UMTS-TDD CDMA/TDD 16 Reported speeds according to IPWireless using 16QAM modulation similar to HSDPA+HSUPA 1xRTT CDMA2000 Mobile phone CDMA 0.144 Succeeded by EV-DO EV-DO 1x Rev. 0 EV-DO 1x Rev.A EV-DO Rev.B CDMA/FDD xN xN Rev B note: N is the number of 1.25 MHz chunks of spectrum used.

87 LTE performance requirements
Mobility Optimized for low mobility(0-15km/h) but supports high speed Latency user plane < 5ms control plane < 50 ms Improved spectrum efficiency Cost-effective migration from Release 6 Universal Terrestrial Radio Access (UTRA) radio interface and architecture Improved broadcasting IP-optimized Scalable bandwidth of 20MHz, 15MHz, 10MHz, 5MHz and <5MHz Co-existence with legacy standards (users can transparently start a call or transfer of data in an area using an LTE standard, and, when there is no coverage, continue the operation without any action on their part using GSM/GPRS or W-CDMA-based UMTS)

88 3GPP Long Term Evolution (LTE)
3GPP (LTE) is Adopting: OFDMA in DL with 64QAM All IP e2e Network Channel BWs up to 20 MHz Both TDD and FDD profiles Flexible Access Network Advanced Antenna Technologies UL: Single-Carrier FDMA (SC-FDMA), (64QAM optional) LTE is adopting technology & features already available with Mobile WiMAX Can expect similar long-term performance benefits and trade-offs

89 Other Key Parameter Comparisons
LTE Mobile WiMAX Rel 1.5 Duplex FDD and TDD Frequency Band for Performance Analysis 2000 MHz 2500 MHz Channel BW Up to 20 MHz Downlink OFDMA Uplink SC-FDMA DL Spectral Efficiency1 1.57 bps/Hz/Sector (2x2) MIMO2 1.59 bps/Hz/Sector (2x2) MIMO UL Spectral Efficiency1 0.64 bps/Hz/Sector (1x2) SIMO2 0.99 bps/Hz/Sector (1x2) SIMO Mobility Support Target: Up to 350 km/hr Up to 120 km/hr Frame Size 1 millisec 5 millisec HARQ Incremental Redundancy Chase Combining Link Budget Typically limited by Mobile Device Advanced Antenna Support DL: 2x2, 2x4, 4x2, 4x4 UL: 1x2, 1x4, 2x2, 2x4 1. Spectral efficiency is based on NGMN Alliance recommended evaluation methodology 2. Reference for LTE Spectral Efficiency: Motorola website, “LTE in Depth”.

90 Key Features of LTE Multiple access scheme Downlink: OFDMA
Uplink: Single Carrier FDMA (SC-FDMA) Adaptive modulation and coding DL modulations: QPSK, 16QAM, and 64QAM UL modulations: QPSK and 16QAM Rel-6 Turbo code: Coding rate of 1/3, two 8-state constituent encoders, and a contention- free internal interleaver. Bandwidth scalability for efficient operation in differently sized allocated spectrum bands Possible support for operating as single frequency network (SFN) to support MBMS

91 Key Features of LTE(contd.)
Multiple Antenna (MIMO) technology for enhanced data rate and performance. ARQ within RLC sublayer and Hybrid ARQ within MAC sublayer. Power control and link adaptation Implicit support for interference coordination Support for both FDD and TDD Channel dependent scheduling & link adaptation for enhanced performance. Reduced radio-access-network nodes to reduce cost,protocol-related processing time & call set-up time

92 Key LTE radio access features
Downlink: OFDM Uplink: SC-FDMA Advanced antenna solutions Diversity Beam-forming Multi-layer transmission (MIMO) Spectrum flexibility Flexible bandwidth New and existing bands Duplex flexibility: FDD and TDD SC-FDMA OFDMA TX 20 MHz 1.4 MHz

93 LTE: Not a Simple 3G Upgrade
LTE Represents a Major Upgrade from CDMA-Based HSPA (or EV-DO) No longer a “simple” SW upgrade: CDMA to OFDMA, represent different technologies Circuit switched to IP e2e network Also requires new spectrum to take full advantage of wider channel BWs and … Requires dual-mode user devices for seamless internetwork connectivity

94 Radio Access Network Packet Core WMAX/LTE Specifications
Motorola Confidential Proprietary, LTE CxO Overview, Rev 1 MOTOROLA and the Stylized M Logo are registered in the US Patent & Trademark Office. All other product or service names are the property of their respective owners. © Motorola, Inc. 2007 WMAX/LTE Specifications Radio Access Network Packet Core OFDMA Technology Downlink 100Mbps+ Uplink 20-50Mbps+ User <10msec latency Flexible spectrum – MHz FDD and TDD VoIP ~3x time UMTS capacity MIMO/Beamforming E2E QOS New all IP collapsed architecture Centralized mobility and application layer (IMS based) E2E QOS Access technology agnostic Connect to legacy GSM/UMTS core (LTE)

95 OFDM LTE uses OFDM for the downlink – that is, from the base station to the terminal. OFDM meets the LTE requirement for spectrum flexibility and enables cost-efficient solutions for very wide carriers with high peak rates. OFDM uses a large number of narrow sub-carriers for multi-carrier transmission. The basic LTE downlink physical resource can be seen as a time-frequency grid. In the frequency domain, the spacing between the subcarriers, Δf, is 15kHz. In addition, the OFDM symbol duration time is 1/Δf + cyclic prefix. The cyclic prefix is used to maintain orthogonality between the sub-carriers even for a time-dispersive radio channel. One resource element carries QPSK, 16QAM or 64QAM. With 64QAM, each resource element carries six bits. The OFDM symbols are grouped into resource blocks. The resource blocks have a total size of 180kHz in the frequency domain and 0.5ms in the time domain. Each 1ms Transmission Time Interval (TTI) consists of two slots (Tslot). In E-UTRA, downlink modulation schemes QPSK, 16QAM, and 64QAM are available.

96 SC-FDMA The LTE uplink transmission scheme for FDD and TDD mode is based on SC-FDMA (Single Carrier Frequency Division Multiple Access). This is to compensate for a drawback with normal OFDM, which has a very high Peak to Average Power Ratio (PAPR). High PAPR requires expensive and inefficient power amplifiers with high requirements on linearity, which increases the cost of the terminal and also drains the battery faster. SC-FDMA solves this problem by grouping together the resource blocks in such a way that reduces the need for linearity, and so power consumption, in the power amplifier. A low PAPR also improves coverage and the cell-edge performance. Still, SC-FDMA signal processing has some similarities with OFDMA signal processing, so parameterization of downlink and uplink can be harmonized.

97 … FDMA OFDM Power Power Multiple orthogonal carriers Channel Frequency
TDMA Time User 1 User 2 User 3 User 4 User 5

98 OFDMA is more frequency efficient than FDMA
FDMA vs. OFDMA OFDMA is more frequency efficient than FDMA Each station is assigned a set of subcarriers, eliminating frequency guard bands between users Channel Guard band FDMA OFDMA

99 WiMAX LTE Dynamic OFDMA Fixed OFDMA Power Time Frequency Frequency
Frequency allocation per user is continuous vs. time Frequency allocation per user is dynamically allocated vs. time slots User 1 User 2 User 3 User 4 User 5

100 LTE-Downlink (OFDM) Improved spectral efficiency
Reduce ISI effect by multipath Against frequency selective fading frequency selective fading 在正交分頻多工系統中,原來的寬頻通道被分割成N 個子通道,透過使用串列至並行轉換器,將資料送至各個子載波上,由於資料區間被拉長為原本的N倍, 所以這些子載波有著較低的傳輸速率,當子通道數目足夠多時,每個子載波可以視具有平坦的通道頻率響應,進而可以有效的對抗頻率選擇性衰減通道所造成的失真

101 LTE Uplink (SC-FDMA) SC-FDMA is a new single carrier multiple access technique which has similar structure and performance to OFDMA A salient advantage of SC-FDMA over OFDM is low to Peak to Average Power Ratio (PAPR) : Increasing battery life

102 SDMA = Smart Antenna Technologies
Beamforming Use multiple-antennas to spatially shape the beam to improve coverage and capacity Spatial Multiplexing (SM) or Collaborative MIMO Multiple streams are transmitted over multiple antennas Multi-antenna receivers separate the streams to achieve higher throughput In uplink single-antenna stations can transmit simultaneously Space-Time Code (STC) Transmit diversity such as Alamouti code [1,2] reduces fading 2x2 Collaborative MIMO increases the peak data rate two-fold by transmitting two data streams.

103 Multiple Antenna Techniques
MIMO employs multiple transmit and receive antennas to substantially enhance the air interface. It uses spacetime coding of the same data stream mapped onto multiple transmit antennas, which is an improvement over traditional reception diversity schemes where only a single transmit antenna is deployed to extend the coverage of the cell. MIMO processing also exploits spatial multiplexing, allowing different data streams to be transmitted simultaneously from the different transmit antennas, to increase the end-user data rate and cell capacity. In addition, when knowledge of the radio channel is available at the transmitter (e.g. via feedback information from the receiver), MIMO can also implement beam-forming to further increase available data rates and spectrum efficiency

104 Advanced Antenna Techniques
Single data stream / user Beam-forming Coverage, longer battery life Spatial Division Multiple Access (SDMA) Multiple users in same radio resource Multiple data stream / user Diversity Link robustness Spatial multiplexing Spectral efficiency, high data rate support Beamforming increases the user data rates by focusing the transmit power in the direction of the user, effectively increasing the signal at the user. Beamforming provides the most benefits to the users in areas with weaker signal strength, like the edge of the cell coverage. SDMA is another advanced technique, which increases sector capacity by allowing simultaneous transmissions of the same physical resources to different users, who are spatially separated. This technique can be combined with MIMO to offer higher data rates simultaneously.

105 Beamforming & SDMA Enhances signal reception through directional array gain, while individual antenna has omni-directional gain • Extends cell coverage • Suppresses interference in space domain • Enhances system capacity • Prolongs battery life • Provides angular information for user tracking Source: Key Features and Technologies in 3G Evolution, /sessionspeaker /file/atdownload

106 LTE spectrum (bandwidth and duplex) flexibility

107 Evolution of LTE-Advanced
Asymmetric transmission bandwidth Layered OFDMA Advanced Multi-cell Transmission/Reception Techniques Enhanced Multi-antenna Transmission Techniques Support of Larger Bandwidth in LTE-Advanced

108 Asymmetric transmission bandwidth
voice transmission : UE to UE Asymmetric transmission streaming video : the server to the UE (the downlink)

109 Layered OFDMA The bandwidth of basic frequency block is, 15–20 MHz
Layered OFDMA radio access scheme in LTE-A will have layered transmission bandwidth, support of layered environments and control signal formats

110 Advanced Multi-cell Transmission/Reception Techniques
In LTE-A, the advanced multi-cell transmission/reception processes helps in increasing frequency efficiency and cell edge user throughput Estimation unit Calculation unit Determination unit Feedback unit

111 Enhanced Multi-antenna Transmission Techniques
In LTE-A, the MIMO scheme has to be further improved in the area of spectrum efficiency, average cell through put and cell edge performances In LTE-A the antenna configurations of 8x8 in DL and 4x4 in UL are planned

112 Enhanced Techniques to Extend Coverage Area
Remote Radio Requirements (RREs) using optical fiber should be used in LTE-A as effective technique to extend cell coverage

113 Support of Larger Bandwidth in LTE-Advanced
Peak data rates up to 1Gbps are expected from bandwidths of 100MHz. OFDM adds additional sub-carrier to increase bandwidth

114 LTE vs. LTE-Advanced

115 LTE Network Architecture
The LTE architecture consists of E-UTRAN (Evolved UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access Network) on the access side and EPC (Evolved Packet Core) on the core side. A typical LTE/SAE network will have two types of network elements. The first is the new enhanced base station, so called “Evolved NodeB (eNodeB)” per 3GPP standards. This enhanced BTS provides the LTE air interface and performs radio resource management for the evolved access system. The second is the new Access Gateway (AGW). The AGW provides termination of the LTE bearer. It also acts as a mobility anchor point for the user plane. It implements key logical functions including MME (Mobility Management Entity) for the Control Plane and for the User Plane. These functions may be split into separate physical nodes, depending on the vendor-specific implementation. [Source:Technical Overview of 3GPP Long Term Evolution (LTE) Hyung G. Myung

116 System Architecture Evolution(SAE)
System Architecture Evolution (aka SAE) is the core network architecture of 3GPP's future LTE wireless communication standard. SAE is the evolution of the GPRS Core Network, with some differences. The main principles and objectives of the LTE-SAE architecture include : A common anchor point and gateway (GW) node for all access technologies IP-based protocols on all interfaces; Simplified network architecture All IP network All services are via Packet Switched domain Support mobility between heterogeneous RATs, including legacy systems as GPRS, but also non-3GPP systems (say WiMAX) Support for multiple, heterogeneous RATs, including legacy systems as GPRS, but also non-3GPP systems (say WiMAX) RAT – Radio Access Technology

117 SAE S1: provides access to Evolved RAN radio resources for the transport of user plane and control plane traffic. The S1 reference point enables MME and UPE separation and also deployments of a combined MME and UPE S2: mobility support between WLAN 3GPP IP access or non 3GPP IP access and Inter AS Anchor S3: Enables user and bearer information exchange for inter 3GPP access system S4 : Mobility support between GPRS Core and Inter AS Anchor S5a: Provides the user plane with related control and mobility support between MME/UPE and 3GPP anchor. S6: Provides transfer of subscription and authentication data for user access to the evolved system . S7: provides transfer of (QoS) policy and charging rules from PCRF (Policy and Charging Rule Function ) to Policy and Charging Enforcement Function (PCEF) GERAN-GSM EDGE Radio Access Network UTRAN-UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access Network SGSN Serving GPRS Support Node [Source:]

118 Evolved Packet Core (EPC)
MME (Mobility Management Entity): -Manages and stores the UE control plane context, generates temporary Id, provides UE authentication, authorization, mobility management UPE (User Plane Entity): -Manages and stores UE context, ciphering, mobility anchor, packet routing and forwarding, initiation of paging 3GPP anchor: -Mobility anchor between 2G/3G and LTE SAE anchor: -Mobility anchor between 3GPP and non 3GPP (I-WLAN, etc)

119 LTE and WiMAX Modulation and Access
CDMA (code division multiple access) is a coding and access scheme CDMA, W-CDMA, CDMA-2000 SDMA (space division multiple access) is an access scheme MIMO, beamforming, sectorized antennas TDMA (time division multiple access) is an access scheme AMPS, GSM FDMA (frequency division multiple access) is an access scheme OFDM (orthogonal frequency division multiplexing) is a modulation scheme OFDMA (orthogonal frequency division multiple access) is a modulation and access scheme

120 3G W-CDMA Architecture 4G LTE Architecture Data Core (SGSN/GGSN)
Iub interface Iu PS interface ATM/IP Iu CS interface Voice Core (MSC) Iub interface ATM/IP 4G LTE Architecture IP Major changes: IP interfaces mandatory Fewer nodes. X2 interface between base stations. Point to multipoint network connections. Lower latency S1 interface X2 interface Evolved Packet Core IP S1 interface

121 Session 3: Fujitsu Packet Optical Solutions
Technology Options For Connection-Oriented Ethernet (COE) Significant Differences Among Number of Layers to Manage 4/20/2017 Routed Non-Routed Static PW/MPLS T-MPLS MPLS-TP PBB-TE VLAN Tag Switching IP/MPLS IP/MPLS-Based COE IS-IS, OSPF, BGP, IP addressing, BFD PW MPLS-TP LSP Eth BFD, Protection Protocol BFD, VCCV 802.1ag, 802.3ah, Y.1731 MPLS-TP-based COE MPLS LSP PW PW Ethernet-based COE Ethernet+PW+LSP Eth Eth Ethernet+PW+LSP S-VLAN or PBB-TE Tunnel BFD, RSVP-TE/LDP, FRR Eth Ethernet Eth T-LDP/BFD, VCCV G.8031, 802.1ag, 802.3ah, Y.1731 802.1ag, 802.3ah, Y.1731 (3) Data Plane Layers Ethernet Pseudowire (PW) LSP (1) Control Plane Layer IP (3) Data Plane Layers Ethernet Pseudowire (PW) LSP (1) Data Plane Layer Ethernet Key messages LTE service layer is IP. Backhaul network need not be service aware COE is ideally suited to meet backhaul network’s stringent QoS and high availability requirements While taking advantage of Ethernet’s statistical multiplexing and higher BW capabilities MPLS-TP is similar philosophically as the Ethernet-centric approach but adds addition data encapsulation layers Circuit emulation not neccessary for LTE Backhaul network is a key area to reduce OpEx OpEx reduction is key to maintain or improve margins due to flat rate data service plans Ethernet-based COE simplifies OAM&P Only 1 Layer to manage: Ethernet

122 Proposed LTE Architecture
Example 3 Backhaul for LTE EVPL for S1 interface E-LAN for X2 interface RAN BS Carrier Ethernet Aggregation Network RAN NC Carrier Ethernet Access Network RAN BS UNI ENNI UNI UNI RAN BS EVPL 1 ENNI EVPL 2 EVPL 3 EVPLAN Carrier Ethernet Access Network

123 L2/L3 Backhaul Challenges
Wholesale backhaul providers typically prefer L2: Simpler to provision Scalable BW “pipes” for unpredictable needs Strong Ethernet OAM mechanisms  offer SLA Sub 50ms failover with 802.3ad and G.8032 Pseudowire helps support 2G/3G services, in addition to LTE Powerful diagnostic tools “Pure-Play” wireless operators typically prefer L2: Simple / automatic provisioning Ethernet circuit validation, PM, fault detection and analysis Traffic engineering  oversubscribe link bandwidth Integrated carriers may prefer L3 (skill sets) Mesh, alternate routing, but less developed OAM

124 Evolution From Sonet To Packet-Based Ethernet MBH
Session 3: Fujitsu Packet Optical Solutions 4/20/2017 FMO Step 1: Add COE over Sonet to increase bandwidth efficiency FMO Step 2: Begin Migration to EoF packet network. Existing services unaffected PMO: Sonet MSPP Packet Optical Networking Packet Optical Networking Sonet Sonet Sonet EoF TDM EoS TDM COE TDM COE DS1s Ethernet DS1s Ethernet DS1s Ethernet 2G/3G 2G/3G LTE 2G/3G 3G/LTE Packet-optical networking platform with COE facilitates MBH network migration of multi-generation 2G/3G/LTE services

125 LTE Backhaul Requirements (…and the radio perspective)
Details High Capacities Mbit/s per site Peak rate & average 173 Mbit/s vs. 35 Mbit/s Low latency <10msec Handover interface (X2) E-LAN for eNBs Communication Enhanced services Service-aware networks Deployment paradigms Hotspot the size of a city/rural BB Migration strategies TDM  Ethernet 2G3GLTE Synchronization E1/T1 for legacy. 1588V2 & SyncE Convergence True multiplay operators

126 Multi-Generation Backhaul with Multiple Synchronization Options
Sync-E ETH FE/GbE Adaptive / IEEE IP Node B 2G BSC NTR IP-DSLAM TDM ATM IMA Packet Switched Network Node B SHDSL 3G RNC ETH Sync-E E1/T1 ATM eNode B TDM TDM link aGW TDM/SONET Network S1 (ETH) E1/T1 ATM IMA Physical-layer Sync E1/T1 TDM link Sync-Ethernet (G.8262) NTR – DSL/GPON Packet-based Sync Adaptive NTP

127 Security With Connection-Oriented Ethernet
COE uses few protocols. IP & MPLS require many The more protocols used, MBH network is more susceptible to attacks Management VLANs isolated from user traffic Similar to DCC isolation from user traffic in Sonet networks COE has many security advantages over bridged solutions COE disables MAC address learning / flooding MAC address spoofing cannot occur MAC table overflow DOS attacks cannot occur COE disables vulnerable Layer 2 control protocols (L2CPs) Protocol-based DOS attacks cannot occur COE is immune to IP-based attacks & popular L2-based attacks

128 2G/3G/4G Backhaul Services over Ethernet/IP/MPLS
Mobile Operator E2E T1 & Ethernet Diagnostics MSC CT3/OC3 4G G/W Mobile Operator A GigE E2E SLA Monitoring and Diagnostics Test Equip. 4G eNB Transport Provider ETH 2G/3G Fixed Wireless T1/E1 4G eNB Wholesale Carrier Ethernet MPLS ETH 2G/3G T1/E1 Mobile Operator B Test Equip. 4G eNB CT3/OC3 Ethernet Access Ring (50ms) 2G/3G MSC ETH T1/E1 4G G/W GigE Portal NMS Data VLANs – Carry BH traffic, OAM and test data. Mgt VLAN – Management and SLA statistics

129 Scalability WiMAX Channel bandwidth (MHz) 1.25 5 10 20 3.5 7 8.75
Sample time (ns) 714.3 178.6 89.3 44.6 250 125 100 FFT size 128 512 1024 2048 Sampling factor (ch bw/sampling freq) 28/25 8/7 Subcarrier spacing (kHz) 7.8125 9.766 Symbol time (usec) 91.4 102.4 LTE Channel bandwidth (MHz) 1.4 3 5 10 15 20 FFT size 128 258 512 1024 1536 2048

130 3G/4G Comparison Peak Data Rate (Mbps) Access time (msec) Downlink
Uplink HSPA (today) 14 Mbps 2 Mbps msec HSPA (Release 7) MIMO 2x2 28 Mbps 11.6 Mbps HSPA + (MIMO, 64QAM Downlink) 42 Mbps WiMAX Release 1.0 TDD (2:1 UL/DL ratio), 10 MHz channel 40 Mbps 10 Mbps 40 msec LTE (Release 8), 5+5 MHz channel 43.2 Mbps 21.6 Mbps 30 msec

131 Satellite Broadband Wireless
Use of satellites for personal wireless communication is fairly recent Satellite use falls into three broad categories Satellites are used to acquire scientific data and perform research in space Satellites look at Earth from space Satellites include devices that are simply reflectors

132 Satellite Technology Outlook
Satellites can provide wireless communication In areas not covered by cellular or WiMAX Satellites today are enabling carriers to offer Internet access and voice calls to passengers and crews across large oceans And in high latitudes and remote corners of the Earth Can also make these services available in many other unpopulated areas

133 Satellite Broadband Wireless
Rotate with the earth, usually over equator; 1/3 earth coverage

134 Satellite orbit altitudes

135 Satellite Transmissions
Satellites generally send and receive on one of four frequency bands Frequency band affects the size of the antenna L: GPS S: weather, NASA, Sirius/XM satellite radio C: open satellite communications Ku: popular with remote locations transmitting back to TV studio Ka: communications satellites

136 Satellite Transmissions (continued)

137 Satellite Transmissions (continued)
Class and Type of Service Satellites can provide two classes of service Consumer class service Shares the available bandwidth between the users Business class service Offers dedicated channels with dedicated bandwidth Types of connectivity Point-to-point, point-to-multipoint, and multipoint-to-multipoint

138 Satellite Transmissions (continued)

139 Satellite Transmissions (continued)
Modulation techniques Binary phase shift keying (BPSK) Quadrature phase shift keying (QPSK) Eight-phase shift keying (8-PSK) Quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) Multiplexing techniques Permanently assigned multiple access (PAMA) Multi-channel per carrier (MCPC) Demand assigned multiple access (DAMA)

140 Low Earth Orbit (LEO) Low earth orbit (LEO) satellites
Circle the Earth at an altitude of 200 to 900 miles Must travel at high speeds So that the Earth’s gravity will not pull them back into the atmosphere Area of Earth coverage (called the footprint) is small LEO systems have a low latency Use low-powered terrestrial devices (RF transmitters) Round trip time: 20 to 40 milliseconds

141 Orbits for typical LEO and MEO systems, e.g. GPS
LEO and MEO satellites need to move or their orbits will decay; thus need >1 satellite to maintain connection.

142 LEO satellite systems UML: user mobile link GWL: gateway link
ISL: intersatellite link

143 Low Earth Orbit (LEO) (continued)
LEO satellites groups Big LEO Carries voice and data broadband services, such as wireless Internet access Little LEO Provides pager, satellite telephone, and location services

144 LEO example: Iridium constellation
Designed by Motorola during the 1990s, went bankrupt in What cost $5 billion was sold for $25 million. 66 active satellites with a few spares at a height of 781 km (485 miles). Sold to Iridium Communications Inc. Iridium plans to send up 66 new satellites and 6 spares starting in 2015, called IridiumNext. Data and voice.

145 Medium Earth Orbit (MEO)
Medium earth orbit (MEO) satellites Orbit the Earth at altitudes between 1,500 and 10,000 miles Some MEO satellites orbit in near-perfect circles Have a constant altitude and constant speed Other MEO satellites revolve in elongated orbits called highly elliptical orbits (HEOs) Advantages MEO can circle the Earth in up to 12 hours Have a bigger Earth footprint

146 Medium Earth Orbit (MEO)

147 Medium Earth Orbit (MEO)
Disadvantage Higher orbit increases the latency Round trip time: 50 to 150 milliseconds HEO satellites Have a high apogee (maximum altitude) and a low perigee (minimum altitude) Can provide good coverage in extreme latitudes Orbits typically have a 24-hour period

148 MEO example: GPS (global positioning system)
GPS was established in 1973 by U.S. and consisted of 24 satellites (now ~32). Dual-use system – military and civilian. Civilian side used by commerce, science, banking, mobile phones, farmers, surveyors, power grids, you and me. GPS can provide absolute location, relative movement, and time transfer. Inducted into Space Foundation Space Technology Hall of Fame in 1998. Three satellites gives you 2 points, but you can choose the one on the ground; 4 gives you 1 point and overcomes clock errors; usually see at least 6; often see 8-10

149 MEO example: GPS (global positioning system)
Each satellite continually transmits messages that include (1) the time the message was transmitted, (2) precise orbital information (the ephemeris), and (3) general system health and rough orbits of all GPS satellites (the almanac) Receiver takes messages, determines the transit time of each message and computes the distances to each satellite. These distances along with satellites’ locations are use in determining receiver’s location (trilateration). (See Wikipedia GPS for cool image of satellite visibility.)

150 MEO example: GPS (global positioning system)
GPS consists of 3 segments (1) Space segment – the space vehicles at ~20,200km (2) Control segment – a master control station, an alternate master control station, four dedicated ground antennas, and six dedicated monitor stations (3) User segment – you and me All satellites broadcast at two frequencies: GHz and GHz using CDMA spread-spectrum technology What will you create?

151 Geosynchronous Earth Orbit (GEO)
Geosynchronous earth orbit (GEO) satellites Stationed at an altitude of 22,282 miles Orbit matches the rotation of the Earth And moves as the Earth moves Can provide continuous service to a very large footprint Three GEO satellites are needed to cover the Earth Have high latencies of about 250 milliseconds Require high-powered terrestrial sending devices

152 Geosynchronous Earth Orbit (GEO)

153 Geosynchronous Earth Orbit (GEO)

154 Geosynchronous Earth Orbit (GEO)

155 Example GEO satellite – Weather
Weather satellites can watch more than weather. Can also observe city lights, fires, pollution effects, auroras, sand and dust storms, snow cover, energy flows, volcano output, etc. Can observe both visible spectrum and infrared spectrum The U.S. has two geostationary weather birds: GOES-11 and GOES GOES-12, or GOES-EAST, over the Mississippi River, covers most of the U.S. weather. GOES-11 covers the eastern Pacific Ocean.

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