11 Commercial Food Production The fermentation processes used to grow the microbes must be economical and efficient, and methods are always being improved.
12 Cheese production is a traditional process that has been updated by the use of modern scientific techniques.The curds are formed more quickly if the coagulation of the milk protein casein is catalysed by an enzyme.Traditionally rennin was used, extracted from the stomach contents of calves slaughtered for meat.
13 Genetic engineers have now produced a strain of the bacterium E. Coli which contains the gene for the enzyme chymosin.This enzyme can be used instead of rennin to produce a cheese that is acceptable to vegetarians.
14 The second phase of cheese production also involves the action of bacteria or fungi – hard cheeses such as Stilton are formed by bacterial action from the inside, whereas soft cheeses are usually the result of fungal action from the outside.
15 The characteristic smells of strong cheeses are usually due to metabolism of fatty acids, sometimes the same as those found on human skin.The warm, moist conditions on the feet produce and odour which the producers of Camembert cheese call ‘les pieds de dieu’ (God’s feet).Bread and beer are produced using yeast to ferment a sugar source.