Presentation on theme: "Chapter 4 Modern Genetics Section 1 Human Inheritance"— Presentation transcript:
1 Chapter 4 Modern Genetics Section 1 Human Inheritance Cells and HeredityChapter 4 Modern GeneticsSection 1 Human Inheritance
2 Section 1 Human Inheritance: Objectives To explain what multiple alleles are.To explain why some human traits showa large variety of phenotypes.To explain how environmental factors can alter the effects of a gene.To explain what determines sex and why some sex linked traits are more common in males than in females.To describe how geneticists use pedigrees.
3 Section 1 Human Genetics Vocab 1. multiple alleles Three or more forms of a gene that code for a single trait.
4 2. sex-linked gene A gene that is carried on the X or Y chromosome
5 3. carrier A person who has one recessive allele for a trait and one dominant allele, but does not have the trait.
6 4. pedigree A chart or “family tree” that tracks which members of a family have a particular trait.
7 NotesChromosomes1. ____________ exists in pairs.
8 2. Two traits controlled by many genes are: heightskin color
9 3. Three environmental factors that can effect height are: BCLack of proteinLack of mineralsLack of vitamins
10 4. There are __________ chromosomes in each body cell. 23 pairs of4. There are __________ chromosomes in each body cell.
11 XY5. Males have the ______ combination of chromosomes, while females have the _______ combinationXX
12 6. The _________ determines the gender of the offspring. sperm6. The _________ determines the gender of the offspring.
13 Males7. ________ are more likely to have a sex-linked trait that is controlled by a ______________ allele.recessive
15 Chapter 4 Modern Genetics Section 2 Human Genetic Disorders Cells and HeredityChapter 4 Modern GeneticsSection 2 Human Genetic Disorders
16 Section 2 Human Genetic Disorders: Objectives To describe the causes and symptoms of four human genetic disordersTo explain how genetic disorders are diagnosed.
17 Vocab5. genetic disorder An abnormal condition that a person inherits through genes or chromosomes.
18 6. amniocentesis A technique by which a small amount of the fluid that surrounds a developing baby is removed; the fluid is analyzed to determine whether the baby will have a genetic disorder.
19 7. karyotype A picture of all the chromosomes in a cell arranged in pairs.
20 NotesGenetic Disorders1. ______________________ are caused by _____________________, or changes in a person’s ______________.mutationsDNA
21 2. Describe each order and its cause A. Cystic Fibrosis Affect-Cause-Causes think mucus to build up in aperson’s lungs and intestinesA mutation that is carried on arecessive allele.
22 B. Sickle-Cell Affect- Sickle shaped red blood cells that Cause-Sickle shaped red blood cells thatcan not carry as much oxygen asnormal blood cellsA mutation that affects the production of hemoglobin, a protein in red blood cells that carries oxygen
23 C. Hemophilia Affect- A disorder in which a person’s blood Cause-A disorder in which a person’s bloodclots very slowly or not at allPeople with the disorder do notproduce one of the proteins neededfor normal blood clotting
24 D. Down Syndrome Affect- Cause- A distinctive physical appearance, somedegree of mental retardation, heart defects.Many people with down syndrome leadfull lives.A person’s cells have an extra copyof chromosome 21.
26 Chapter 4 Modern Genetics Section 3 Advances in Genetics Cells and HeredityChapter 4 Modern GeneticsSection 3 Advances in Genetics
27 Section 3 Advances in Genetics: Objectives To describe three ways in which people have developed organisms with desired traits.To explain how DNA fingerprinting is usedTo state the goal of the Human Genome Project.
28 Vocab8. Selective breeding The process of selecting a few organisms with desired traits to serve as parents of the next generation.
29 9. Inbreeding A selective breeding method in which two individuals with identical or similar sets of alleles are crossed.
30 10. Hybridization A selective breeding method in which two genetically different individuals are crossed.
31 11. Clone An organism that is genetically identical to the organism from which it was produced.
32 12. Genetic engineering The transfer of a gene from the DNA of one organism into another organism, in order to produce an organism with desired traits.
33 13. Gene therapy The insertion of working copies of a gene into the cells of a person with a genetic disorder in an attempt to correct the disorder.
34 14. Genome All of the DNA in one cell of an organism.
35 Notes 1. Two examples of selective breeding A. B. Dairy cows are bred to produce largerquantities of milkVarieties of fruits and vegetables that arebred to resist diseases
36 2. Two examples of inbreeding Some purebred horsesPurebred dogs, such as Labrador retrieversand German sheperds
37 3. One problem with inbreeding is: Increases the chances of inheriting allelesthat lead to genetic disorders.
38 4. Two examples of hybridization Crossing corn that produces many kernelsWith corn that is resistant to diseasesA mule coming from the cross of a mare anda donkey. The mule has the courage, stamina,and surefootedness of the donkeywith the strength of a horse
39 5. A common example of cloning is *To make a “cutting” from a plant. The cutting cangrow into a new plant
40 hair6. DNA samples from _______, ______, and _____ can be used to identify a person.skinblood
41 7. No two people, except _______________ have the same DNA. Identical twins