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11-1 Copyright © 2011 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. McGraw-Hill/Irwin

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11-2 Key Concepts and Skills Know how to calculate expected returns Understand: –The impact of diversification –The systematic risk principle –The security market line and the risk- return trade-off

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11-3 Chapter Outline 11.1Expected Returns and Variances 11.2Portfolios 11.3Announcements, Surprises, and Expected Returns 11.4Risk: Systematic and Unsystematic 11.5Diversification and Portfolio Risk 11.6Systematic Risk and Beta 11.7The Security Market Line 11.8The SML and the Cost of Capital: A Preview

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11-4 Expected Returns Expected returns are based on the probabilities of possible outcomes Where: p i = the probability of state “i” occurring R i = the expected return on an asset in state i Return to Quick Quiz

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11-5 Example: Expected Returns

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11-6 Variance and Standard Deviation Variance and standard deviation measure the volatility of returns Variance = Weighted average of squared deviations Standard Deviation = Square root of variance Return to Quick Quiz

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11-7 Portfolios Portfolio = collection of assets An asset’s risk and return impact how the stock affects the risk and return of the portfolio The risk-return trade-off for a portfolio is measured by the portfolio expected return and standard deviation, just as with individual assets

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11-8 Portfolio Expected Returns The expected return of a portfolio is the weighted average of the expected returns for each asset in the portfolio Weights (w j ) = % of portfolio invested in each asset Return to Quick Quiz

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11-9 Portfolio Risk Variance & Standard Deviation Portfolio standard deviation is NOT a weighted average of the standard deviation of the component securities’ risk –If it were, there would be no benefit to diversification.

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11-10 Portfolio Variance Compute portfolio return for each state: R P,i = w 1 R 1,i + w 2 R 2,i + … + w m R m,i Compute the overall expected portfolio return using the same formula as for an individual asset Compute the portfolio variance and standard deviation using the same formulas as for an individual asset Return to Quick Quiz

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11-11 Announcements, News and Efficient markets Announcements and news contain both expected and surprise components The surprise component affects stock prices Efficient markets result from investors trading on unexpected news –The easier it is to trade on surprises, the more efficient markets should be Efficient markets involve random price changes because we cannot predict surprises

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11-12 Returns Total Return = Expected return + unexpected return R = E(R) + U Unexpected return (U) = Systematic portion (m) + Unsystematic portion (ε) Total Return = Expected return E(R) + Systematic portion m + Unsystematic portion ε = E(R) + m + ε

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11-13 Systematic Risk Factors that affect a large number of assets “Non-diversifiable risk” “Market risk” Examples: changes in GDP, inflation, interest rates, etc. Return to Quick Quiz

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11-14 Unsystematic Risk = Diversifiable risk Risk factors that affect a limited number of assets Risk that can be eliminated by combining assets into portfolios “Unique risk” “Asset-specific risk” Examples: labor strikes, part shortages, etc. Return to Quick Quiz

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11-15 The Principle of Diversification Diversification can substantially reduce risk without an equivalent reduction in expected returns –Reduces the variability of returns –Caused by the offset of worse-than- expected returns from one asset by better- than-expected returns from another Minimum level of risk that cannot be diversified away = systematic portion

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11-16 Standard Deviations of Annual Portfolio Returns Table 11.7

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11-17 Portfolio Conclusions As more stocks are added, each new stock has a smaller risk-reducing impact on the portfolio p falls very slowly after about 40 stocks are included –The lower limit for p ≈ 20% = M. Forming well-diversified portfolios can eliminate about half the risk of owning a single stock.

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11-18 Portfolio Diversification Figure 11.1

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11-19 Total Risk = Stand-alone Risk Total risk = Systematic risk + Unsystematic risk –The standard deviation of returns is a measure of total risk For well-diversified portfolios, unsystematic risk is very small Total risk for a diversified portfolio is essentially equivalent to the systematic risk

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11-20 Systematic Risk Principle There is a reward for bearing risk There is no reward for bearing risk unnecessarily The expected return (market required return) on an asset depends only on that asset’s systematic or market risk. Return to Quick Quiz

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11-21 Market Risk for Individual Securities The contribution of a security to the overall riskiness of a portfolio Relevant for stocks held in well-diversified portfolios Measured by a stock’s beta coefficient For stock i, beta is: i = ( i,M i ) / M = iM / M 2 Measures the stock’s volatility relative to the market

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11-22 The Beta Coefficient i = ( i,M i ) / M = iM / M 2 Where: ρ i,M = Correlation coefficient of this asset’s returns with the market σ i = Standard deviation of the asset’s returns σ M = Standard deviation of the market’s returns σ M 2 = Variance of the market’s returns σ iM = Covariance of the asset’s returns and the market Slides describing covariance and correlation

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11-23 Interpretation of beta If = 1.0, stock has average risk If > 1.0, stock is riskier than average If < 1.0, stock is less risky than average Most stocks have betas in the range of 0.5 to 1.5 Beta of the market = 1.0 Beta of a T-Bill = 0

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11-24 Beta Coefficients for Selected Companies Table 11.8

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11-25 Beta and the Risk Premium Risk premium = E(R ) – R f The higher the beta, the greater the risk premium should be Can we define the relationship between the risk premium and beta so that we can estimate the expected return? –YES!

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11-26 SML and Equilibrium Figure 11.4

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11-27 Reward-to-Risk Ratio Reward-to-Risk Ratio: = Slope of line on graph In equilibrium, ratio should be the same for all assets When E(R) is plotted against β for all assets, the result should be a straight line

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11-28 Market Equilibrium In equilibrium, all assets and portfolios must have the same reward-to-risk ratio Each ratio must equal the reward-to-risk ratio for the market

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11-29 Security Market Line The security market line (SML) is the representation of market equilibrium The slope of the SML = reward-to-risk ratio: (E(R M ) – R f ) / M Slope = E(R M ) – R f = market risk premium –Since of the market is always 1.0

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11-30 The SML and Required Return The Security Market Line (SML) is part of the Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM) R f = Risk-free rate (T-Bill or T-Bond) R M = Market return ≈ S&P 500 RP M = Market risk premium = E(R M ) – R f E(R i ) = “Required Return”

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11-31 Capital Asset Pricing Model The capital asset pricing model (CAPM) defines the relationship between risk and return E(R A ) = R f + (E(R M ) – R f )β A If an asset’s systematic risk ( ) is known, CAPM can be used to determine its expected return

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11-32 SML example

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11-33 Factors Affecting Required Return R f measures the pure time value of money RP M = (E(R M )-R f ) measures the reward for bearing systematic risk i measures the amount of systematic risk

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11-34 Portfolio Beta β p = Weighted average of the Betas of the assets in the portfolio Weights (w i ) = % of portfolio invested in asset i

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11-35 Covariance of Returns Measures how much the returns on two risky assets move together.

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11-36 Correlation Coefficient Correlation Coefficient = ρ (rho) Scales covariance to [-1,+1] –-1 = Perfectly negatively correlated – 0 = Uncorrelated; not related –+1 = Perfectly positively correlated

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11-37 Two-Stock Portfolios If = -1.0 –Two stocks can be combined to form a riskless portfolio If = +1.0 –No risk reduction at all In general, stocks have ≈ 0.65 –Risk is lowered but not eliminated Investors typically hold many stocks

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Chapter 11 END

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