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By: Jade Rinehart & Sydney Black

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1 By: Jade Rinehart & Sydney Black
Chapter 5 LANGUAGE By: Jade Rinehart & Sydney Black

2 Language Definition: A system of communication through speech, a collection of sounds that a group of people understands to have the same meaning Many countries designate an official language that is used by government for laws, money and stamps A system of written communication in many countries

3 Language Family Is the collection of individual languages believed to be related in their pre-historical origin The most commonly spoken is Indo-European

4 Language Branch Collection of languages that possesses a definite common origin but has split into individual languages Example: Romance languages

5 Language Group Collection of several individual languages that is part of a branch shares a common origin in the recent past, and has relatively similar grammar and vocabulary Example: Spanish and French

6 Indo-European Family Divided into 8 Branches
Germanic- languages ( English, German, Danish, Norwegian and Sweden) that reflect the expansion of people out of the Northern Europe to the west and south Indo-Iranian- Languages ( Arabic, Farsi, Kurdish) which are spoken in South Asia Balto-Slavic- Languages (Russian, Polish, Czech, Slovak, Ukrainian) that developed as Slavic people migrated from a base in present day Ukraine close to 2000 years ago Romance- Languages ( French, Spanish, Italian, Romanian, and Portuguese) that lie in the areas that were once controlled by the Roman Empire

7 The Language Tree 19 language families
Each family has its own branch, and each branch has its own group, each branch has its own language, each language has its own dialect

8 Classification of Languages
Indo-European Family -Includes English Sino-Tibetan -mainly in China Afro-Asiatic -mainly in Middle East Austronesian -mostly in South East Asia Niger-Congo -mainly in Africa Dravidian Family -mainly in India Altaic Family -mainly in Asia Austro-Asiatic -mostly in South East Asia Japanese -mostly in Japan

9 Origin of English The Diffusion of English
From England to North America - Jamestown, VA 1607 - Plymouth, Mass 1620 -First language for 328 million people -Spoken by half-billion people -Official language in 57 countries -Australia and U.S. Two most predominate countries where English is spoken

10 Multilingual States Countries in which more than one language is in use Northern and Southern Belgium have had conflict and difficulty being a multilingual state Helpful Hint! -Multi: More than 1 language is spoken fluently

11 Monolingual States Countries in which only one language is spoken
Japan is monolingual due to its very strict immigration laws France has fought to preserve its monolingual heritage and has laws to keep the language pure. Also has prohibited infusion of English Helpful hint! -Mono: One Language is spoken fluently

12 Isolated Language A language that is unrelated to any other languages and therefore not attached to any language family. This happens because a lack of interaction with speakers of other languages Isolation preserves the language Example: Basque, it’s the only language that survived the arrival of indo European speakers, unable to link to any other language, spoken by 1 million people in the Pyrenees Mts. Of Northern Spain and Southwestern France.

13 Lingua Franca Term means: language of the franks
Is the language of international communication A language mutually understood and commonly used in trade by people who have different native languages Another example: Swahili in East Africa

14 Reviving Extinct Languages
Example: Hebrew, which is a very rare case of an extinct language that has been revived, The Torah was mostly written in Hebrew. It was diminished in 4th century B.C.E Only retained for religion Hebrew became one of two official language in Israel in 1948 Helped for a good sense of nationalism throughout the country

15 Celtic Dominant Language before invasions of the British Isles
It was spoken in much of present day Germany, France, and Northern Italy and British Isles more than 2,000 years ago. Today its still Spoken in Scotland, Wales, Ireland and France Brythonic Welsh- dominant until 19th century, Cornish- extinct in was revived in 1920s and taught in schools Breton- Isolated Peninsula, 250,000 speakers Gaelic Irish - one of two official languages, spoken by 350,000 daily Scottish - 1% in Scotland speak it,

16 Important Terms Proto-tongue Language shift Dialect Language family
Language branch Language group Language Divergence /Convergence Standard language Extinct language Monolingual state Multilingual state Isolated language Lingua franca Pidgin language Ebonics Creolized language Ideograms

17 Fun Facts Estimated in 6,909 languages in world
only 11 languages spoken by more than 100 million people 153 languages spoken by at least 3 million remaining languages spoken by fewer than 3 million people

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