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Presentation on theme: "ARTICULATIONS."— Presentation transcript:


2 WHAT IS A JOINT? A site where two or more bones meet. Provides mobility Weakest point of skeleton

3 Fibrous connective membranes
Joint Structure Fibrous connective membranes Sutures – connected by short fibers from the periosteum (becomes synostosis in adult) Syndesmoses – connected by ligaments (distal end of tibia & fibula) Gomphoses “peg in sockets” (tooth sockets)

4 Cartilaginous - hyaline cartilage holding joint together
Joint Structure Cartilaginous - hyaline cartilage holding joint together Synchondroses– cartilage unites bones (epiphyseal plates & costal joints) Symphyses – connected by fibrocartilage (pubic symphysis, vertebral joints)

5 Synovial joints – separated by a fluid containing joint cavity
Joint Structure Synovial joints – separated by a fluid containing joint cavity Diarthroses - freely moveable joints such as shoulder, knee, hip, and most others

6 Joints classified by function
Synarthroses NO MOVEMENT (sutures, gomphoses, synchondroses, some syndesmoses) Amphiarthroses – SLIGHT MOVEMENT (symphyses, some syndesmoses

7 Diarthroses - FREELY MOVABLE
Joints by function Diarthroses - FREELY MOVABLE Plane (gliding) - tarsals and carpals Condyloid (ellipsoid) – metacarpophalangeal joints Pivot - Atlas/Axis; Radius/Capitulum Saddle - Thumbs Hinge – Elbow, Knee Ball and socket – Shoulders, Hips

8 Suture

9 Synchrondroses

10 Syndesmosis

11 Symphyses

12 Synovial Joint

13 Ball & Socket Joint

14 Condyloid Joint

15 Hinge Joint

16 Pivot Joint

17 Saddle Joint

18 Plane (Gliding) Joint

19 Structure of Diarthrotic Joint
Two or more opposing bones Joint capsule of connective tissue surrounds joint cavity Joint cavity lined with synovial membrane Articular cartilage – covers ends of bone Menisci (articular disks) - cartilage pads (knee) Bursae – flattened sacs filled with synovial fluid Ligaments – attach bone to bone Tendons – attach muscle to bone

20 Synovial Joint

21 Types of Movement Flexion/Extension Abduction/Adduction Circumduction
Rotation Protraction/Retraction

22 Protraction / Retraction

23 Types of Movement Elevation/Depression Inversion/Eversion
Pronation/Supination Dorsiflexion/Plantar flexion

24 Supination / Pronation

25 Elevation / Depression

26 Inversion / Eversion

27 Joint Injuries Sprains - ligaments stretched or torn
Cartilage Injuries - torn cartilage rarely repairs because it’s avascular) Dislocations (luxation) - bones moved out of alignment

28 Knee Joint

29 Inflammatory/Degenerative Conditions
Bursitis - inflammation of a bursa caused by blow or friction Tendonitis - inflammation of tendons caused by overuse Arthritis

30 >100 different types; affecting 1 out of 7
Arthritis >100 different types; affecting 1 out of 7 Osteoarthritis - Wear & Tear; affects 85% Rheumatoid Arthritis - Autoimmune May occur at any age; Most common around 40-50; Affects 1-2% of Americans Immune cells attack joint tissue causing scarring & ossification Ankylosis = stiff deformed joints Gouty Arthritis (Gout) Caused by build up of Uric Acid

31 Other Bone Disorders Rickets - soft bones; lack of calcium due to vitamin D deficiency Osteoporosis - excessive bone loss Paget’s disease - excessive bone formation Osteomyelitis - Inflammation caused by pus-forming bacteria Achondroplasia - defective endochondral bone growth; form of dwarfism

32 Osteosarcoma - form of bone cancer
Scoliosis - abnormal lateral curvature of the spine Kyphosis - abnormal thoracic curvature Lordosis - abnormal lumbar curvature Herniated Disk (Ruptured or Slipped Disk) - compression on intervertebral disk presses on nerves


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