Presentation on theme: "Intellectual Development from One to Three"— Presentation transcript:
1 Intellectual Development from One to Three Chapter 12Intellectual Development from One to Three
2 Chapter ObjectivesSummarize how heredity and the environment shape intelligenceDescribe 4 methods of learning used by young childrenList the 7 areas of intellectual activityList 11 ways to help guide a child’s learningIdentify 4 parts of language that children have an inborn ability to decipherSummarize how to evaluate toys for young children
3 Brain Development from One to Three 12.1Brain Development from One to ThreeIntellectual Development from One to Three
4 Brain Development Discussion Starter Why can a 3-year old perform more tasks than a 1-year old?New Term: NeuroscienceIs the modern study of the brainNeuroscience is what has told us that children need experiences to develop. It was believed that all a child needed to develop correctly was food, shelter, clothing, and a loving, safe environment.
5 The Role of Intelligence Intelligence is the ability to interpret and understand everyday situations and to use prior experiences when faced with new situations or problemsThe ability to learnShaped by heredity and environmentToddlers and preschoolers form attitudes about learning that can last a lifetimeGiven many opportunities, children will develop positive attitudes toward learning
6 Concept DevelopmentConcepts are general categories of objects and informationYoung children often over-apply labels:EX: all round objects are balls OR all animals are dogsFirst categorize things by shape, color, and sizeBalls are round, so are cookies and platesGrass and leaves are greenRelationship between big and little may not be realized until 18 monthsConcepts regarding what is alive and what is not wont be developed until later (clouds, toys, cartoon characters, etc.)Concepts of time improve during these yearsShow more patience“Soon” now has meaning
7 Methods of Learning Piaget’s Four Periods of Learning Age CharacteristicsSensorimotorChildren learn through their senses and own actionsPreoperational(2-7 Years)Children think in terms of their own activities and what they perceive at the momentConcrete OperationsChildren can think logically but still learn best through experiencesFormal OperationsPeople are capable of abstract thinking
8 Methods of Learning Incidental Learning Incidental learning is unplanned learningExample:Five month old Evan pushes a button on a musical toy and discovers that this action causes music to play.After this happens a few times, Evan learns a cause-and-effect situation.Then he pushes the button on purpose to hear music
9 Methods of Learning Trial-and-Error Learning Trial-and-Error learning is learning that takes place when a child tries several solutions to find one that worksAt about months this is seen as experimentingMore advanced for a 3 year oldExample:Krista is a 3 year old and wants to play with the robot her brother is playing with.First, Krista grabs the robot, her brother cries and mom makes her give it backNext, Krista asks if he wants to go play in the sandbox, he says no.Finally, she offers up one of her favorite toys and her brother hands over his robot.
10 Methods of Learning Imitation Imitation is learning by watching and copying othersOlder children become annoyed when a younger sibling copies everything they doThe younger child uses the older child as a model for behavior of all kindsBoth skills and attitudes can be imitatedEXAMPLE:A toddler watches an adult on the telephone and picks up an inanimate object and pretends it’s a phone
11 Methods of Learning Directed Learning Directed learning results from being taught, often by parents, or other caregivers, teachers, or older siblingsOccurs in schools or other areas of formal instruction like the homeDirect learning involves an older person purposely teaching a specific skillEXAMPLE:Joel’s kindergarten teaching helps him learn the letters of the alphabet by showing pictures of items that begin with the same letter
12 Intellectual Activity Areas AttentionTo adults, in order to complete tasks, we have to focus our attention on one thing; blocking out much of the extra sensory information. Infants and young children cannot do this.Young children and infants attention bounces back from one sensory bit of information to another rapidly as they try to make sense of all the messagesEXAMPLE: while putting a child’s shirt on and reaching for their pants, they have wondered out the door to see what was going on in the next roomThe more a child can block out extra sensory information, the better they can learn and focus their attention skills
13 Intellectual Activity Areas MemoryOlder children and adults have long-term and short-term memoryShort-term memory is brief and allows people the accomplish many every day tasks without making the brain store that informationEX: remembering a phone number long enough to callLong-term memory is for more important dataFirst it enters short term memorySecond it is judged on its importanceLast it is stored in long-term memoryBabies demonstrate memory earlyA 1-year old who was frightened by a dog may be afraid of all animals for a timeA 3-year old will remember the specific dog and compare it to others3-year olds can also recall a celebration and look forward to the next oneDevelop long-term memory skills at age 3
14 Intellectual Activity Areas PerceptionPerception is the information received through the sensesReinforced as connects with established parts in the brainCaregivers play a key role in the development of perceptionSimply talking about what you and the child are doing can help perceptionUse descriptive observations that a child can understand and expand onEX: “ Look at the blue block. Your shirt is blue too. Let’s build a tower using only blue blocks.”2 and 3 year olds seem to always ask questions “why?” “What’s that?”Responding to the questions will help further perceptionAlways answer a question, if left unanswered a child’s perception of asking questions has been damaged
15 Intellectual Activity Areas ReasoningNecessary to solve problems and make decisionsRecognize relationships and form conceptsMaking decisions involves choosing from different alternativesChildren learn through practice to make good choicesFirst, let the child choose between two options (both not causing harm)A 1-year old can choose between two books at bedtimeA 3-year old can choose between two different shirtsCaregivers need to take note about asking questions that can elicit (bring about) negative responsesEX: Instead of asking “Would you like to have fish for dinner?” ask “Would you like peas or corn with your fish for dinner?”
16 Intellectual Activity Areas ImaginationVery prominent about 2 years of ageActive imaginations improves learning because it allows the child to try new thingsChild can act out a variety of rolesChildren use imagination to convey what they see and hear themselvesImportant to respect and respond carefully to a child’s imaginationThey may use imagination as a tool for controlling their fearsEX: throwing a monster out the window
17 Intellectual Activity Areas CreativityCreativity is a mental ability that involves using the imagination to produce original ideasOften displayed through objects for others to seeMay also be in daydreams, dramatic play, or silly storiesMostly developed during early childhood and lasts a lifetimePromotes self-esteem and confidenceHow to encourage creativity?Allow the child free time or uninstructed play
18 Intellectual Activity Areas CuriosityCuriosity helps develop the brain and learningCuriosity is what makes children want to know more about the world around themParents can accidentally stifle curiosity by overprotecting the childToddlers are extremely curious about the world around themThey get into everything; peeking around every cornerThey become very curious about their parents and caregivers activitiesEncourage curiosity whenever possibleIf a child wants to stop during a walk and watch a snail, its stimulating to their brain development
19 Let’s Review!1. Why is it vital that young children have a stimulating environment?2. Describe how trial-and-error learning supports Piaget’s description of the Sensorimotor period3. Why is curiosity important?
20 Encouraging Learning from One to Three 12.2Encouraging Learning from One to ThreeIntellectual Development from One to Three
21 BrainstormWhat might be some interesting daily routines that would be excellent learning opportunities for this age group?
22 Guiding for Learning Reading Readiness Depends on a large part of the caregivers environment they createReading to a toddler should be a well-established daily routineInteract with young children while readingHave them predict the storyReading Readiness means learning the skills necessary for reading, including letter recognition and the understanding that letters from the alphabet combine to form words on a pageBefore age 3, reading readiness focuses on exciting a child about readingLast stage of reading readiness is letter recognitionUnderstanding that letters from the alphabet combine to form wordsEncourage children to guess each letter and praise when they guess correct
23 Reading Readiness Bedtime Accomplishes More Than You Think! Children learn how to handle books and turn pagesThey begin to associate written words that appear on the page with words being read aloudFinishing a book creates a sense of accomplishmentEspecially when the child can read some of the text.
24 Readiness for Learning Math ReadinessMath readiness is the level of knowledge of basic math conceptsNumber recognition is a large conceptLike reading, caregivers need to make learning math enjoyableExplore sizes, shapes, amounts, and proportions long before they enter a formal classroom“Are there two bananas left this morning or only one?”Counting and number recognition can be taught by making game for finding numbersHow quickly can a child find the number 3 in a grocery storeBlocks and puzzles also help shape recognitionAlso help in learning shape namesSorting is a good mathematical skillSort items by color, shape, and size
25 Readiness for Learning Guide for LearningSuggestions to guide learningGive your time and attentionAllow time for thinkingGive only as much help as the child needsEncourage children to draw their ownconclusionsDemonstrate how to solve problemsModel problem solvingMaintain a positive attitudeKeep explanations simpleAllow children to explore and discoverHelp children understand the world and how it worksTake frequent breaksChildren need unconstructed play time
26 Language Abilities Speech Development Between a child’s 1st and 2nd birthdays, children work at learning new wordsAt 12 months a child may speak 2 to 8 wordsBy age 2, it jumps to 50 wordsAt this time, children will use 1-2 words versus an entire sentence to express themselvesEncourage language development by talking to young children about their livesAt age 2, children should start developing small sentences“Doggie bark”At 2-1/2 years of age, children begin to learn basic grammar rulesChildren will add an “s” onto words to make them pluralMost 3-year olds can:Say their name and ageMake all vowel sounds and say all consonantsSpeak without repeating a word or syllableUse sentences of at least 4 wordsBe understood by othersAnswer what and where questionsUnderstand what is meant by words like us, in, or underFollow simple commands
27 Speech Development Sign Language Baby sign language is a way to teach infants how to communicate using hand gesturesHand gestures are easier for a child to communicate using hand movements versus their vocal cords (Fine vs Gross motor skills)Studies have shown that children that use sign language to communicate are about 1 full year ahead in other areas of language and speech developmentBaby Sign Language.com
28 Language Abilities Speech Difficulties A child that does not seem to understand what is said, does not speak at all, or speaks very little should be thoroughly examinedMost public school districts provide hearing testsCAREER:A speech-language pathologist is a specialist who is trained to detect and help correct speech problemsSome difficulties can be treated as early as 3 years of ageHearing problems, learning disabilities, and mood disorders can affect speech development
29 Speech Difficulties Articulation Articulation refers to the ability to use clear, distinct speechIts normal for children to have trouble articulating words until at least age 4Skip syllables or leave off endings of wordsMost problems correct themselves over timeInstead of correcting pronunciation of words, set a good example by saying words correctlyInstead of saying “ba-ba” say “bottle”
30 Speech Problems Stuttering Stuttering is when a person speaks with a sporadic repetition or prolonged soundSome parents mistake hesitations in speech for stuttering“ Johnny…Johnny….Johnny. He….he…he hit Zoe!”In this case the child’s language development is still immatureTrue stuttering can be identified by the rhythm, pitch, and speed of speechIt is rapid, forced, short, and sharp in sound“I c-c-c-can’t g-g-g-go outside”Causes are not completely understoodSome overcome with speech therapySome outgrow itNever finish a child’s words, children need time to finish on their own
31 Playtime! Toy Selection One-Two Years Two-Three Years Three-Four Years Motor controlLarge muscleExplorationMetal pans, wooden spoons, etc.Two-Three YearsCoordination is keyChild-size vacuum cleaner or lawn mower, telephone, plastic or wooden toolsCrayons, play dough, booksThree-Four YearsImproved motor skillsIMAGINATIONDolls, construction sets, dress up clothesMusicPuzzlesLarge gross motor skills